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1. kniha Samuelova

Biblia - Sväté písmo

(CPDV - Anglický - Catholic PD)

1Sam 17, 1-58

1 Now the Philistines, gathering their troops for battle, assembled at Socoh of Judah. And they made camp between Socoh and Azekah, within the borders of Dammim. 2 But Saul and the sons of Israel, having gathered together, went to the Valley of Terebinth. And they positioned the army so as to fight against the Philistines. 3 And the Philistines were standing on a mountain on the one side, and Israel was standing on a mountain on the other side. And there was a valley between them. 4 And there went out from the camp of the Philistines, a man of illegitimate birth, named Goliath of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a palm. 5 And he had a helmet of brass upon his head, and he was clothed with a breastplate of scales. Moreover, the weight of his breastplate was five thousand shekels of brass. 6 And he had plates of brass on his lower legs, and a small shield of brass was covering his shoulders. 7 Now the shaft of his spear was like the beam used by a weaver. And the iron of his spear held six hundred shekels of iron. And his armor bearer went before him. 157 8 And standing still, he cried out to the battle lines of Israel, and he said to them: “Why have you arrived, prepared for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not the servants of Saul? Choose one man from among you, and let him descend to do battle alone. 9 If he is able to fight with me and to strike me down, we will be your servants. But if I will prevail over him, and strike him down, you will be the servants, and you will serve us.” 10 And the Philistine was saying: “I have reproached the troops of Israel today. Present a man to me, and let him undertake a fight against me alone.” 11 And Saul and all the Israelites, hearing these words of the Philistine in this manner, were stupefied and exceedingly afraid. 12 Now David was the son of an Ephrathite man, the one mentioned above, from Bethlehem of Judah, whose name was Jesse. He had eight sons, and during the days of Saul, he was an elderly man, and of great age among men. 13 Now his three eldest sons followed Saul into battle. And the names of his three sons, who went to the battle, were Eliab, the firstborn, and the second, Abinadab, and the third Shammah. 14 But David was the youngest. Therefore, when the three eldest had followed Saul, 15 David went away from Saul, and he returned, so that he might pasture the flock of his father at Bethlehem. 16 Truly, the Philistine advanced morning and evening, and he stood forth, for forty days. 17 Now Jesse said to his son David: “Take, for your brothers, an ephah of cooked grain, and these ten loaves, and hurry to the camp, to your brothers. 18 And you shall carry these ten little cheeses to the tribune. And visit your brothers, to see if they are doing well. And learn with whom they have been stationed.” 19 But they were in the valley of Terebinth, with Saul and all the sons of Israel, fighting against the Philistines. 20 And so, David rose up in the morning, and he commended the flock to the caretaker. And he went away burdened, just as Jesse had instructed him. And he went to the place of the battle line, and to the army, which, in going out to fight, was shouting in the conflict. 21 For Israel had positioned their troops, but the Philistines also had prepared themselves against them. 22 Then, leaving the items that he had brought under the hand of the keeper of baggage, David ran to the place of the conflict. And he was asking if all was going well with his brothers. 23 And while he was still speaking with them, there appeared the man of spurious descent, whose name was Goliath, the Philistine of Gath, ascending from the camp of the Philistines. And he was speaking in these same words, which David heard. 24 Then all the Israelites, when they had seen the man, fled from his face, fearing him greatly. 25 And someone of Israel said: “Have you seen this man, who has risen up. For he ascended in order to reproach Israel. Therefore, the man who will strike him down, the king will enrich with great wealth, and will give to him his daughter, and will cause his father’s house to be free of tribute in Israel.” 26 And David spoke to the men who were standing with him, saying: “What will be given to the man who will have struck down this Philistine, and who will have taken away the disgrace from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should reproach the soldiers of the living God?” 27 Then the people repeated to him the same words, saying, “These things shall be given to the man who will have struck him down.” 28 Now when Eliab, his eldest brother, had heard this, as he was speaking with the others, he became angry against David, and he said: “Why did you come here? And why did you leave behind those few sheep in the wilderness? I know your pride and the wickedness of your heart, that you have come down so that you might see the battle.” 29 And David said: “What have I done? Is there any word against me?” 30 And he turned away from him a little, toward another. And he asked the same question. And the people responded to him as before. 31 Now the words that David had spoken were heard and reported in the sight of Saul. 32 When he had been led to Saul, he said to him: “Let no one lose heart over him. I, your servant, shall go and fight against the Philistine.” 33 And Saul said to David: “You are not able to withstand this Philistine, nor to fight against him. For you are a boy, but he has been a warrior from his boyhood.” 34 And David said to Saul: “Your servant was pasturing the flock of his father. And there approached a lion or a bear, and it took a ram from the midst of the flock. 35 And I pursued after them, and I struck them, and I rescued from their mouth. And they rose up against me. And I caught them by the throat, and I strangled and killed them. 36 For I, your servant, have killed both lion and bear. And so this uncircumcised Philistine, too, will be like one of them. Now I will go and take away the reproach of the people. For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, who has dared to curse the army of the living God?” 37 And David said, “The Lord who rescued me from the hand of the lion, and from the hand of the bear, he himself will free me from the hand of this Philistine.” Then Saul said to David, “Go, and may the Lord be with you.” 38 And Saul clothed David with his garments. And he placed a helmet of brass upon his head, and he clothed him with a breastplate. 39 Then David, having girded his sword over his armor, began to see if he could walk in the armor. But he was not accustomed to it. And David said to Saul: “I cannot move about in this way. For I am not used to it.” And he put them aside. 40 And he took up his staff, which he held always in his hands. And he chose for himself five very smooth stones from the torrent. And he put them into the shepherd’s bag that he had with him. And he took up a sling in his hand. And he went out against the Philistine. 41 And the Philistine, advancing, went and drew near against David. And his armor bearer was before him. 42 And when the Philistine had seen and considered David, he despised him. For he was a youth, ruddy and of handsome appearance. 43 And the Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog, that you approach against me with a staff?” And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. 44 And he said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the air, and to the beasts of the earth.” 45 But David said to the Philistine: “You approach me with sword, and spear, and shield. But I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, which you have reproached. 46 Today, the Lord will deliver you into my hand, and I will strike you down. And I will take your head from you. And today, I will give the carcasses of the camp of the Philistines to the birds of the air, and to the beasts of the earth, so that all the earth may know that God is with Israel. 47 And this entire assembly will know that the Lord does not save by sword, nor by spear. For this is his war, and he will deliver you into our hands.” 48 Then, when the Philistine had risen up, and was approaching, and was drawing near against David, David hurried and ran to the fight against the Philistine. 49 And he put his hand into his bag, and took out one stone. And swinging it around, he cast it with the sling and 158 struck the Philistine on the forehead. And the stone became imbedded in his forehead. And he fell on his face, upon the ground. 50 And David prevailed against the Philistine with a sling and a stone. And he struck and killed the Philistine. But since David held no sword in his hand, 51 he ran and stood over the Philistine, and he took his sword, and withdrew it from the sheath. And he killed him and cut off his head. Then the Philistines, seeing that their strongest man was dead, fled away. 52 And the men of Israel and Judah, rising up, shouted and pursued after the Philistines, even until they arrived at the valley and as far as the gates of Ekron. And many wounded among the Philistines fell on the way of Shaaraim, and as far as Gath, and as far as Ekron. 53 And the sons of Israel, returning after they had pursued the Philistines, invaded their camp. 54 Then David, taking up the head of the Philistine, brought it to Jerusalem. Yet truly, he placed his armor in his own tent. 55 Now at the time that Saul had seen David going out against the Philistines, he said to Abner, the leader of the military, “From what stock is this youth descended, Abner?” And Abner said, “As your soul lives, O king, I do not know.” 56 And the king said, “You shall inquire as to whose son this boy may be.” 57 And when David had returned, after the Philistine had been struck down, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul, having the head of the Philistine in his hand. 58 And Saul said to him, “Young man, from what ancestry are you?” And David said, “I am the son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem.”

1Sam 17, 1-58

Verš 20
And so, David rose up in the morning, and he commended the flock to the caretaker. And he went away burdened, just as Jesse had instructed him. And he went to the place of the battle line, and to the army, which, in going out to fight, was shouting in the conflict.
1Sam 26:5 - And David rose up secretly, and he went to the place where Saul was. And when he had seen the place where Saul was sleeping, and Abner, the son of Ner, the leader of his military, and Saul sleeping in a tent, and the remainder of the common people all around him,

Verš 15
David went away from Saul, and he returned, so that he might pasture the flock of his father at Bethlehem.
1Sam 16:19 - Therefore, Saul sent messengers to Jesse, saying, “Send to me your son David, who is in the pastures.”

1Sam 17,1 - Socho bolo asi tam, kde je dnes zrúcanisko zvané Eš-Šuweke, západne od Betlehema, pri Wadi es-Sant (Joz 15,35). Neďaleko musela ležať aj Azeka a Efes Dammim.

1Sam 17,2 - Terebintové údolie je asi dnešné Wadi es-Sant.

1Sam 17,4 - Výraz "muž prostredník" je veľmi nejasný. Znamená buď muža, ktorý vystupoval na priestor medzi dvoma tábormi, alebo muža, ktorý chcel súbojom "sprostredkovať", rozhodnúť bitku. (Vulg číta: "Muž kríženec"). – Gét pozri 5,8. – Podľa udanej miery bol Goliáš skoro 3 metre vysoký.

1Sam 17,5 - Váha šeklu nebola všade rovnaká. Ak vezmeme za základ, že váha šeklu bola 8,40 g, vážil Goliášov pancier 42 kg.

1Sam 17,12 - Miesto: "bol starcom medzi mužmi" by bolo azda lepšie čítať s niektorými dávnymi prekladmi (sýr., arab.): "bol starcom, pokročilým v rokoch".

1Sam 17,17 - Efa obsahovala asi 36 litrov. Pražené obilné zrno bolo u Izraelitov obvyklým pokrmom.

1Sam 17,18 - "Plukovník" doslovne: veliteľ nad tisícmi, tisícnik. – Koniec verša je nejasný. Nevieme určite, čo mal Dávid od bratov doniesť.

1Sam 17,34 - Levy a medvede boli kedysi v Palestíne časté, dnes ich tam už niet. Pastieri sa s dravou zverou púšťali do boja; aspoň zbytky roztrhaného zvieraťa museli vytrhnúť divej zveri z pysku a ukázať to pánovi stáda, ináč by boli museli pánovi nahradiť škodu (porov. Gn 31,39; Ex 22,13).

1Sam 17,52 - Gét čítame so LXX. Dnešný hebr. text a Vulg majú chybne: "prenasledovali ich až do doliny". – Podľa Joz 15,35 n. ležalo mesto Saraim blízo Socha a Azeky.

1Sam 17,55 - Dávid nebol stále na Šaulovom dvore (porov. 17,15). Nie div, že ho Šaul nepozná. Nemohol poznať každého, kto na kráľovský dvor prichádzal. A nesmieme zabudnúť, že kráľ vídal Dávida len vo chvíľach, keď bol duševne chorý, čo tiež mohlo prispieť k tomu, že sa naň nepamätal.