výhody registrácie

Evanjelium podľa Jána

Biblia - Sväté písmo

(UKJV - Anglický - Updated King James)

Jn 3, 1-36

1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: 2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that you do, except God be with him. 3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. 4 Nicodemus says unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born? 5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, (o. pneuma) he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 "That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit (o. pneuma) is spirit. (o. pneuma) " 7 Marvel not that I said unto you, All of you must be born again. 8 The wind (o. pneuma) blows where it decides, and you hear the sound thereof, but can not tell whence it comes, and where it goes: so is every one that is born of the Spirit. (o. pneuma) 9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be? 10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Are you a master of Israel, and know not these things? 11 "Verily, verily, I say unto you, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and all of you receive not our witness. " 12 If I have told you earthly things, and all of you believe not, how shall all of you believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? 13 And no man has ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: 15 That whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. 17 "For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. " 18 He that believes on him is not condemned: but he that believes not is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the condemnation, that light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. 20 For every one that does evil hates the light, neither comes to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 21 But he that does truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God. 22 "After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized. " 23 And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized. 24 For John was not yet cast into prison. 25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews about purifying. 26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with you beyond Jordan, to whom you bare witness, behold, the same baptizes, and all men come to him. 27 John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven. 28 All of you yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him. 29 He that has the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which stands and hears him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled. 30 He must increase, but I must decrease. 31 He that comes from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaks of the earth: he that comes from heaven is above all. 32 "And what he has seen and heard, that he testifies; and no man receives his testimony. " 33 He that has received his testimony has set to his seal that God is true. 34 For he whom God has sent speaks the words (o. rhema) of God: for God gives not the Spirit (o. pneuma) by measure unto him. 35 The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 36 "He that believes on the Son has everlasting life: and he that believes not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abides on him. "

Jn 3, 1-36





JFB

Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

     1, 2. Nicodemus—In this member of the Sanhedrim sincerity and timidity are seen struggling together.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

     2. came to Jesus by night—One of those superficial "believers" mentioned in Joh 2:23, 24, yet inwardly craving further satisfaction, Nicodemus comes to Jesus in quest of it, but comes "by night" (see Joh 19:38, 39; 12:42); he avows his conviction that He was
      come from Godan expression never applied to a merely human messenger, and probably meaning more here—but only as "a teacher," and in His miracles he sees a proof merely that "God is with Him." Thus, while unable to repress his convictions, he is afraid of committing himself too far.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

     3. Except, &c.—This blunt and curt reply was plainly meant to shake the whole edifice of the man's religion, in order to lay a deeper and more enduring foundation. Nicodemus probably thought he had gone a long way, and expected, perhaps, to be complimented on his candor. Instead of this, he is virtually told that he has raised a question which he is not in a capacity to solve, and that before approaching it, his spiritual vision required to be rectified by an entire revolution on his inner man. Had the man been less sincere, this would certainly have repelled him; but with persons in his mixed state of mind—to which Jesus was no stranger (Joh 2:25) —such methods speed better than more honeyed words and gradual approaches.
      a man—not a Jew merely; the necessity is a universal one.
      be born again—or, as it were, begin life anew in relation to God; his manner of thinking, feeling, and acting, with reference to spiritual things, undergoing a fundamental and permanent revolution.
      cannot see—can have no part in (just as one is said to "see life," "see death," &c.).
      the kingdom of God—whether in its beginnings here (Lu 16:16), or its consummation hereafter (Mt 25:34; Eph 5:5).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

     4. How, &c.—The figure of the new birth, if it had been meant only of Gentile proselytes to the Jewish religion, would have been intelligible enough to Nicodemus, being quite in keeping with the language of that day; but that Jews themselves should need a new birth was to him incomprehensible.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

     5. of water and of the Spirit—A twofold explanation of the "new birth," so startling to Nicodemus. To a Jewish ecclesiastic, so familiar with the symbolical application of water, in every variety of way and form of expression, this language was fitted to show that the thing intended was no other than a thorough spiritual purification by the operation of the Holy Ghost. Indeed, element of water and operation of the Spirit are brought together in a glorious evangelical prediction of Ezekiel (Eze 36:25-27), which Nicodemus might have been reminded of had such spiritualities not been almost lost in the reigning formalism. Already had the symbol of water been embodied in an initiatory ordinance, in the baptism of the Jewish expectants of Messiah by the Baptist, not to speak of the baptism of Gentile proselytes before that; and in the Christian Church it was soon to become the great visible door of entrance into "the kingdom of God," the reality being the sole work of the Holy Ghost (Tit 3:5).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

     6-8. That which is born, &c.—A great universal proposition; "That which is begotten carries within itself the nature of that which begat it" [OLSHAUSEN].
      flesh—Not the mere material body, but all that comes into the world by birth, the entire man; yet not humanity simply, but in its corrupted, depraved condition, in complete subjection to the law of the fall (Ro 8:1-9). So that though a man "could enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born," he would be no nearer this "new birth" than before (Job 14:4; Ps 51:5).
      is spirit—"partakes of and possesses His spiritual nature."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

     7. Marvel not, &c.—If a spiritual nature only can see and enter the kingdom of God; if all we bring into the world with us be the reverse of spiritual; and if this spirituality be solely of the Holy Ghost, no wonder a new birth is indispensable.
      Ye must—"Ye, says Jesus, not we" [BENGEL]. After those universal propositions, about what "a man" must be, to "enter the kingdom of God" (Joh 3:5) —this is remarkable, showing that our Lord meant to hold Himself forth as "separate from sinners."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

     8. The wind, &c.—Breath and spirit (one word both in Hebrew and Greek) are constantly brought together in Scripture as analogous (Job 27:3; 33:4; Eze 37:9-14).
      canst not tell, &c.—The laws which govern the motion of the winds are even yet but partially discovered; but the risings, failings, and change in direction many times in a day, of those gentle breezes here referred to, will probably ever be a mystery to us: So of the operation of the Holy Ghost in the new birth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

     9, 10. How, &c.—Though the subject still confounds Nicodemus, the necessity and possibility of the new birth is no longer the point with him, but the nature of it and how it is brought about [LUTHARDT]. "From this moment Nicodemus says nothing more, but has sunk unto a disciple who has found his true teacher. Therefore the Saviour now graciously advances in His communications of truth, and once more solemnly brings to the mind of this teacher in Israel, now become a learner, his own not guiltless ignorance, that He may then proceed to utter, out of the fulness of His divine knowledge, such farther testimonies both of earthly and heavenly things as his docile scholar may to his own profit receive" [STIER].


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

     10. master—"teacher." The question clearly implies that the doctrine of regeneration is so far disclosed in the Old Testament that Nicodemus was culpable in being ignorant of it. Nor is it merely as something that should be experienced under the Gospel that the Old Testament holds it forth—as many distinguished critics allege, denying that there was any such thing as regeneration before Christ. For our Lord's proposition is universal, that no fallen man is or can be spiritual without a regenerating operation of the Holy Ghost, and the necessity of a spiritual obedience under whatever name, in opposition to mere mechanical services, is proclaimed throughout all the Old Testament.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

     11-13. We speak that we know, and . . . have seen—that is, by absolute knowledge and immediate vision of God, which "the only-begotten Son in the bosom of the Father" claims as exclusively His own (Joh 1:18). The "we" and "our" are here used, though Himself only is intended, in emphatic contrast, probably, with the opening words of Nicodemus, "Rabbi, we know.", &c.
      ye receive not, &c.—referring to the class to which Nicodemus belonged, but from which he was beginning to be separated in spirit.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

     12. earthly things—such as regeneration, the gate of entrance to the kingdom of God on earth, and which Nicodemus should have understood better, as a truth even of that more earthly economy to which he belonged.
      heavenly things—the things of the new and more heavenly evangelical economy, only to be fully understood after the effusion of the Spirit from heaven through the exalted Saviour.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

     13. no man hath ascended, &c.—There is something paradoxical in this language—"No one has gone up but He that came down, even He who is at once both up and down." Doubtless it was intended to startle and constrain His auditor to think that there must be mysterious elements in His Person. The old Socinians, to subvert the doctrine of the pre-existence of Christ, seized upon this passage as teaching that the man Jesus was secretly caught up to heaven to receive His instructions, and then "came down from heaven" to deliver them. But the sense manifestly is this: "The perfect knowledge of God is not obtained by any man's going up from earth to heaven to receive it—no man hath so ascended—but He whose proper habitation, in His essential and eternal nature, is heaven, hath, by taking human flesh, descended as the Son of man to disclose the Father, whom He knows by immediate gaze alike in the flesh as before He assumed it, being essentially and unchangeably 'in the bosom of the Father'" (Joh 1:18).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

     14-16. And as Moses, &c.—Here now we have the "heavenly things," as before the "earthly," but under a veil, for the reason mentioned in Joh 3:12. The crucifixion of Messiah is twice after this veiled under the same lively term—"uplifting," Joh 8:28; 12:32, 33. Here it is still further veiled—though to us who know what it means, rendered vastly more instructive—by reference to the brazen serpent. The venom of the fiery serpents, shooting through the veins of the rebellious Israelites, was spreading death through the camp—lively emblem of the perishing condition of men by reason of sin. In both cases the remedy was divinely provided. In both the way of cure strikingly resembled that of the disease. Stung by serpents, by a serpent they are healed. By "fiery serpents" bitten—serpents, probably, with skin spotted fiery red [KURTZ]—the instrument of cure is a serpent of brass or copper, having at a distance the same appearance. So in redemption, as by man came death, by Man also comes life—Man, too, "in the likeness of sinful flesh" (Ro 8:3), differing in nothing outward and apparent from those who, pervaded by the poison of the serpent, were ready to perish. But as the uplifted serpent had none of the venom of which the serpent-bitten people were dying, so while the whole human family were perishing of the deadly wound inflicted on it by the old serpent, "the Second Man," who arose over humanity with healing in His wings, was without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing. In both cases the remedy is conspicuously displayed; in the one case on a pole, in the other on the cross, to "draw all men unto Him" (Joh 12:32). In both cases it is by directing the eye to the uplifted Remedy that the cure is effected; in the one case the bodily eye, in the other the gaze of the soul by "believing in Him," as in that glorious ancient proclamation—"Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth," &c. (Isa 45:22). Both methods are stumbling to human reason. What, to any thinking Israelite, could seem more unlikely than that a deadly poison should be dried up in his body by simply looking on a reptile of brass? Such a stumbling-block to the Jews and to the Greeks foolishness was faith in the crucified Nazarene as a way of deliverance from eternal perdition. Yet was the warrant in both cases to expect a cure equally rational and well grounded. As the serpent was God's ordinance for the cure of every bitten Israelite, so is Christ for the salvation of every perishing sinner—the one however a purely arbitrary ordinance, the other divinely adapted to man's complicated maladies. In both cases the efficacy is the same. As one simple look at the serpent, however distant and however weak, brought an instantaneous cure, even so, real faith in the Lord Jesus, however tremulous, however distant—be it but real faith—brings certain and instant healing to the perishing soul. In a word, the consequences of disobedience are the same in both. Doubtless many bitten Israelites, galling as their case was, would reason rather than obey, would speculate on the absurdity of expecting the bite of a living serpent to be cured by looking at a piece of dead metal in the shape of one—speculate thus till they died. Alas! is not salvation by a crucified Redeemer subjected to like treatment? Has the offense of the cross" yet ceased? (Compare 2Ki 5:12).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

     16. For God so loved, &c.—What proclamation of the Gospel has been so oft on the lips of missionaries and preachers in every age since it was first uttered? What has sent such thrilling sensations through millions of mankind? What has been honored to bring such multitudes to the feet of Christ? What to kindle in the cold and selfish breasts of mortals the fires of self-sacrificing love to mankind, as these words of transparent simplicity, yet overpowering majesty? The picture embraces several distinct compartments: "THE WORLD"—in its widest sense—ready "to perish"; the immense "LOVE OF GOD" to that perishing world, measurable only, and conceivable only, by the gift which it drew forth from Him; THE GIFT itself—"He so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son," or, in the language of Paul, "spared not His own Son" (Ro 8:32), or in that addressed to Abraham when ready to offer Isaac on the altar, "withheld not His Son, His only Son, whom He loved" (Ge 22:16); the FRUIT of this stupendous gift—not only deliverance from impending "perdition," but the bestowal of everlasting life; the MODE in which all takes effect—by "believing" on the Son. How would Nicodemus' narrow Judaism become invisible in the blaze of this Sun of righteousness seen rising on "the world" with healing in His wings! (Mal 4:2).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

     17-21. not to condemn, &c.—A statement of vast importance. Though "condemnation" is to many the issue of Christ's mission (Joh 3:19), it is not the object of His mission, which is purely a saving one.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

     18. is not condemned—Having, immediately on his believing, "passed from death unto life" (Joh 5:24).
      condemned already—Rejecting the one way of deliverance from that "condemnation" which God gave His Son to remove, and so wilfully remaining condemned.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

     19. this is the condemnation, &c.—emphatically so, revealing the condemnation already existing, and sealing up under it those who will not be delivered from it.
      light is come into the world—in the Person of Him to whom Nicodemus was listening.
      loved darkness, &c.—This can only be known by the deliberate rejection of Christ, but that does fearfully reveal it.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,20:

     20. reproved—by detection.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

     21. doeth truth—whose only object in life is to be and do what will bear the light. Therefore he loves and "comes to the light," that all he is and does, being thus thoroughly tested, may be seen to have nothing in it but what is divinely wrought and divinely approved. This is the "Israelite, indeed, in whom is no guile."

     Joh 3:22-36. JESUS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF THE BAPTIST—HIS NOBLE TESTIMONY TO HIS MASTER.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

     22-24. land of Judea—the rural parts of that province, the foregoing conversation being held in the capital.
      baptized—in the sense explained in Joh 4:2.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

     23. Ænon . . . Salim—on the west of Jordan. (Compare Joh 3:26 with Joh 1:28).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

     24. John not yet cast into prison—Hence it is plain that our Lord's ministry did not commence with the imprisonment of John, though, but for this, we should have drawn that inference from Mt 4:12 and Mark's (Mr 1:14) express statement.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

     25, 26. between some of—rather, "on the part of."
      and the Jews—rather (according to the best manuscripts), "and a Jew,"
      about purifying—that is, baptizing, the symbolical meaning of washing with water being put (as in Joh 2:6) for the act itself. As John and Jesus were the only teachers who baptized Jews, discussions might easily arise between the Baptist's disciples and such Jews as declined to submit to that rite.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

     26. Rabbi, &c.—"Master, this man tells us that He to whom thou barest such generous witness beyond Jordan is requiting thy generosity by drawing all the people away to Himself. At this rate, thou shalt soon have no disciples at all." The reply to this is one of the noblest and most affecting utterances that ever came from the lips of man.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

     27-30. A man, &c.—"I do my heaven-prescribed work, and that is enough for me. Would you have me mount into my Master's place? Said I not unto you, I am not the Christ? The Bride is not mine, why should the people stay with me?? Mine it is to point the burdened to the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world, to tell them there is Balm in Gilead, and a Physician there. And shall I grudge to see them, in obedience to the call, flying as a cloud, and as doves to their windows? Whose is the Bride but the Bridegroom's? Enough for me to be the Bridegroom's friend, sent by Him to negotiate the match, privileged to bring together the Saviour and those He is come to seek and to save, and rejoicing with joy unspeakable if I may but 'stand and hear the Bridegroom's voice,' witnessing the blessed espousals. Say ye, then, they go from me to Him? Ye bring me glad tidings of great joy. He must increase, but I must decrease; this, my joy, therefore is fulfilled."
      A man can receive, &c.—assume nothing, that is, lawfully and with any success; that is, Every man has his work and sphere appointed him from above, Even Christ Himself came under this law (Heb 5:4).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

     31-34. He that, &c.—Here is the reason why He must increase while all human teachers must decrease. The Master "cometh from above"—descending from His proper element, the region of those "heavenly things" which He came to reveal, and so, although mingling with men and things on the earth, is not "of the earth," either in Person or Word. The servants, on the contrary, springing of earth, are of the earth, and their testimony, even though divine in authority, partakes necessarily of their own earthiness. (So strongly did the Baptist feel this contrast that the last clause just repeats the first). It is impossible for a sharper line of distinction to be drawn between Christ and all human teachers, even when divinely commissioned and speaking by the power of the Holy Ghost. And who does not perceive it? The words of prophets and apostles are undeniable and most precious truth; but in the words of Christ we hear a voice as from the excellent Glory, the Eternal Word making Himself heard in our own flesh.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,32:

     32. what he hath seen and heard—(See on Joh 3:11 and Joh 1:18).
      and no man receiveth, &c.—John's disciples had said, "All come to Him" (Joh 3:26). The Baptist here virtually says, Would it were so, but alas! they are next to "none" [BENGEL]. They were far readier to receive himself, and obliged him to say, I am not the Christ, and he seems pained at this.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

     33. hath set to His seal, &c.—gives glory to God whose words Christ speaks, not as prophets and apostles by a partial communication of the Spirit to them.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

     34. for God giveth not the Spirit by measure—Here, again, the sharpest conceivable line of distinction is drawn between Christ and all human-inspired teachers: "They have the Spirit in a limited degree; but God giveth not [to Him] the Spirit by measure." It means the entire fulness of divine life and divine power. The present tense "giveth," very aptly points out the permanent communication of the Spirit by the Father to the Son, so that a constant flow and reflow of living power is to be understood (Compare Joh 1:15) [OLSHAUSEN].


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

     35, 36. The Father loveth, &c.—See on Mt 11:27, where we have the "delivering over of all things into the hands of the Son," while here we have the deep spring of that august act in the Father's ineffable "love of the Son."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

     36. hath everlasting life—already has it. (See on Joh 3:18 and Joh 5:24).
      shall not see life—The contrast here is striking: The one has already a life that will endure for ever—the other not only has it not now, but shall never have it—never see it.
      abideth on him—It was on Him before, and not being removed in the only possible way, by "believing on the Son," it necessarily remaineth on him! Note.—How flatly does this contradict the teaching of many in our day, that there neither was, nor is, anything in God against sinners which needed to be removed by Christ, but only in men against God!


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:
Christ's Interview with Nicodemus.

      1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:   2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.   3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.   4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?   5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.   6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.   7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.   8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.   9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?   10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things?   11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.   12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?   13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.   14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:   15 That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.   16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not peri
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

John's Testimony to Christ.

      22 After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judæa; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.   23 And John also was baptizing in Ænon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.   24 For John was not yet cast into prison.   25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews about purifying.   26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him.   27 John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.   28 Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.   29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.   30 He must increase, but I must decrease.   31 He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.   32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.   33 He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God is true.   34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.   35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.   36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.

      In these verses we have,

      I. Christ's removal into the land of Judea (v. 22), and there he tarried with his disciples. Observe, 1. Our Lord Jesus, after he entered upon his public work, travelled much, and removed often, as the patriarchs in their sojournings. As it was a good part of his humiliation that he had no certain dwelling-place, but was, as Paul, in journeyings often, so it was an instance of his unwearied industry, in the work for which he came into the world, that he went about in prosecution of it; many a weary step he took to do good to souls. The Sun of righteousness took a large circuit to diffuse his light and heat, Ps. xix. 6. 2. He was not wont to stay long at Jerusalem. Though he went frequently thither, yet he soon returned into the country; as here. After these things, after he had had this discourse with Nicodemus, he came into the land of Judea; not so much for greater privacy (though mean and obscure places best suited the humble Jesus in his humble state) as for greater usefulness. His preaching and miracles, perhaps, made most noise at Jerusalem, the fountain-head of news, but did least good there, where the most considerable men of the Jewish church had so much the ascendant. 3. When he came into the land of Judea his disciples came with him; for these were they that continued with him in his temptations. Many that flocked to him at Jerusalem could not follow his motions into the country, they had no business there; but his disciples attended him. If the ark remove, it is better to remove and go after it (as those did, Josh. iii. 3) than sit still without it, though it be in Jerusalem itself. 4. There he tarried with them, dietribe--He conversed with them, discoursed with them. He did not retire into the country for his ease and pleasure, but for more free conversation with his disciples and followers. See Cant. vii. 11, 12. Note, Those that are ready to go with Christ shall find him as ready to stay with them. It is supposed that he now staid five or six months in this country. 5. There he baptized; he admitted disciples, such as believed in him, and had more honesty and courage than those had at Jerusalem, ch. ii. 24. John began to baptize in the land of Judea (Matt. iii. 1), therefore Christ began there, for John had said, There comes one after me. He himself baptized not, with his own hand, but his disciples by his orders and directions, as appears, ch. iv. 2. But his disciples' baptizing was his baptizing. Holy ordinances are Christ's, though administered by weak men.

      II. John's continuance in his work, as long as his opportunities lasted, v. 23, 24. Here we are told,

      1. That John was baptizing. Christ's baptism was, for substance, the same with John's, for John bore witness to Christ, and therefore they did not at all clash or interfere with one another. But, (1.) Christ began the work of preaching and baptizing before John laid it down, that he might be ready to receive John's disciples when he should be taken off, and so the wheels might be kept going. It is a comfort to useful men, when they are going off the stage, to see those rising up who are likely to fill up their place. (2.) John continued the work of preaching and baptizing though Christ had taken it up; for he would still, according to the measure given to him, advance the interests of God's kingdom. There was still work for John to do, for Christ was not yet generally known, nor were the minds of people thoroughly prepared for him by repentance. From heaven John had received his command, and he would go on in his work till he thence received his countermand, and would have his dismission from the same hand that gave him his commission. He does not come in to Christ, lest what had formerly passed should look like a combination between them; but he goes on with his work, till Providence lays him aside. The greater gifts of some do not render the labours of others, that come short of them, needless and useless; there is work enough for all hands. They are sullen that will sit down and do nothing when they see themselves out-shone. Though we have but one talent, we must account for that: and, when we see ourselves going off, must yet go on to the last.

      2. That he baptized in Enon near Salim, places we find nowhere else mentioned, and therefore the learned are altogether at a loss where to find them. Wherever it was, it seems that John removed from place to place; he did not think that there was any virtue in Jordan, because Jesus was baptized there, which should engage him to stay there, but as he saw cause he removed to other waters. Ministers must follow their opportunities. He chose a place where there was much water, hydata polla--many waters, that is, many streams of water; so that wherever he met with any that were willing to submit to his baptism water was at hand to baptize them with, shallow perhaps, as is usual where there are many brooks, but such as would serve his purpose. And in that country plenty of water was a valuable thing.

      3. That thither people came to him and were baptized. Though they did not come in such vast crowds as they did when he first appeared, yet now he was not without encouragement, but there were still those that attended and owned him. Some refer this both to John and to Jesus: They came and were baptized; that is, some came to John, and were baptized by him, some to Jesus, and were baptized by him, and, as their baptism was one, so were their hearts.

      4. It is noted (v. 24) that John was not yet cast into prison, to clear the order of the story, and to show that these passages are to come in before Matt. vi. 12. John never desisted from his work as long as he had his liberty; nay, he seems to have been the more industrious, because he foresaw his time was short; he was not yet cast into prison, but he expected it ere long, ch. ix. 4.

      III. A contest between John's disciples and the Jews about purifying, v. 25. See how the gospel of Christ came not to send peace upon earth, but division. Observe, 1. Who were the disputants: some of John's disciples, and the Jews who had not submitted to his baptism of repentance. Penitents and impenitents divide this sinful world. In this contest, it should seem, John's disciples were the aggressors, and gave the challenge; and it is a sign that they were novices, who had more zeal than discretion. The truths of God have often suffered by the rashness of those that have undertaken to defend them before they were able to do it. 2. What was the matter in dispute: about purifying, about religious washing. (1.) We may suppose that John's disciples cried up his baptism, his purifying, as instar omnium--superior to all others, and gave the preference to that as perfecting and superseding all the purifications of the Jews, and they were in the right; but young converts are too apt to boast of their attainments, whereas he that finds the treasure should hide it till he is sure that he has it, and not talk of it too much at first. (2.) No doubt the Jews with as much assurance applauded the purifyings that were in use among them, both those that were instituted by the law of Moses and those that were imposed by the tradition of the elders; for the former they had a divine warrant, and for the latter the usage of the church. Now it is very likely that the Jews in this dispute, when they could not deny the excellent nature and design of John's baptism, raised an objection against it from Christ's baptism, which gave occasion for the complaint that follows here (v. 26): "Here is John baptizing in one place." say they, "and Jesus at the same time baptizing in another place; and therefore John's baptism, which his disciples so much applaud, is either," [1.] "Dangerous, and of ill consequence to the peace of the church and state, for you see it opens a door to endless parties. Now that John has begun, we shall have every little teacher set up for a baptist presently. Or," [2.] "At the best it is defective and imperfect. If John's baptism, which you cry up thus, have any good in it, yonder the baptism of Jesus goes beyond it, so that for your parts you are shaded already by a greater light, and your baptism is soon gone out of request." Thus objections are made against the gospel from the advancement and improvement of gospel light, as if childhood and manhood were contrary to each other, and the superstructure were against the foundation. There was no reason to object Christ's baptism against John's, for they consisted very well together.

      IV. A complaint which John's disciples made to their master concerning Christ and his baptizing, v. 26. They, being nonplussed by the fore-mentioned objection, and probably ruffled and put into a heat by it, come to their master, and tell him, "Rabbi, he that was with thee, and was baptized of thee, is now set up for himself; he baptizeth, and all men come to him; and wilt thou suffer it?" Their itch for disputing occasioned this. It is common for men, when they find themselves run aground in the heat of disputation, to fall foul upon those that do them no harm. If these disciples of John had not undertaken to dispute about purifying, before they understood the doctrine of baptism, they might have answered the objection without being put into a passion. In their complaint, they speak respectfully to their own master, Rabbit; but speak very slightly of our Saviour, though they do not name him. 1. They suggest that Christ's setting up a baptism of his own was a piece of presumption, very unaccountable; as if John, having first set up this rite of baptizing, must have the monopoly of it, and, as it were, a patent for the invention: "He that was with thee beyond Jordan, as a disciple of thine, behold, and wonder, the same, the very same, baptizes, and takes thy work out of thy hand." Thus the voluntary condescensions of the Lord Jesus, as that of his being baptized by John, are often unjustly and very unkindly turned to his reproach. 2. They suggest that it was a piece of ingratitude to John. He to whom thou barest witness baptizes; as if Jesus owed all his reputation to the honourable character John gave of him, and yet had very unworthily improved it to the prejudice of John. But Christ needed not John's testimony, ch. v. 36. He reflected more honour upon John than he received from him, yet thus it is incident to us to think that others are more indebted to us than really they are. And besides, Christ's baptism was not in the least an impeachment, but indeed the greatest improvement, of John's baptism, which was but to lead the way to Christ's. John was just to Christ, in bearing witness to him; and Christ's answering his testimony did rather enrich than impoverish John's ministry. 3. They conclude that it would be a total eclipse to John's baptism: "All men come to him; they that used to follow with us now flock after him, it is therefore time for us to look about us." It was not indeed strange that all men came to him. As far as Christ is manifested he will be magnified; but why should John's disciples grieve at this? Note, Aiming at the monopoly of honour and respect has been in all ages the bane of the church, and the shame of its members and ministers; as also a vying of interests, and a jealousy of rivalship and competition. We mistake if we think that the excelling gifts and graces, and labours and usefulness, of one, are a diminution and disparagement to another that has obtained mercy to be faithful; for the Spirit is a free agent, dispensing to every one severally as he will. Paul rejoiced in the usefulness even of those that opposed him, Phil. i. 18. We must leave it to God to choose, employ, and honour his own instruments as he pleaseth, and not covet to be placed alone.

      V. Here is John's answer to this complaint which his disciples made, v. 27, &c. His disciples expected that he would have resented this matter as they did; but Christ's manifestation to Israel was no surprise to John, but what he looked for; it was not disturbance to him, but what he wished for. He therefore checked the complaint, as Moses, Enviest thou for my sake? and took this occasion to confirm the testimonies he had formerly borne to Christ as superior to him, cheerfully consigning and turning over to him all the interest he had in Israel. In this discourse here, the first minister of the gospel (for so John was) is an excellent pattern to all ministers to humble themselves and to exalt the Lord Jesus.

      1. John here abases himself in comparison with Christ, v. 27-30. The more others magnify us, the more we must humble ourselves, and fortify ourselves against the temptation of flattery and applause, and the jealousy of our friends for our honour, by remembering our place, and what we are, 1 Cor. iii. 5.

      (1.) John acquiesces in the divine disposal, and satisfies himself with that (v. 27): A man can receive nothing except it be given him from heaven, whence every good gift comes (James i. 17), a general truth very applicable in this case. Different employments are according to the direction of divine Providence, different endowments according to the distribution of the divine grace. No man can take any true honour to himself, Heb. v. 4. We have as necessary and constant a dependence upon the grace of God in all the motions and actions of the spiritual life as we have upon the providence of God in all the motions and actions of the natural life: now this comes in here as a reason, [1.] Why we should not envy those that have a larger share of gifts than we have, or move in a larger sphere of usefulness. John reminds his disciples that Jesus would not have thus excelled him except he had received it from heaven, for, as man and Mediator, he received gifts; and, if God gave him the Spirit without measure (v. 34), shall they grudge at it? The same reason will hold as to others. If God is pleased to give to others more ability and success than to us, shall we be displeased at it, and reflect upon him as unjust, unwise, and partial? See Matt. xx. 15. [2.] Why we should not be discontented, though we be inferior to others in gifts and usefulness, and be eclipsed by their excellencies. John was ready to own that it was the gift, the free gift, of heaven, that made him a preacher, a prophet, a baptist: it was God that gave him the interest he had in the love and esteem of the people; and, if now his interest decline, God's will be done! He that gives may take. What we receive from heaven we must take as it is given. Now John never received a commission for a standing perpetual office, but only for a temporary one, which must soon expire; and therefore, when he has fulfilled his ministry, he can contentedly see it go out of date. Some give quite another sense of these words: John had taken pains with his disciples, to teach them the reference which his baptism had to Christ, who should come after him, and yet be preferred before him, and do that for them which he could not do; and yet, after all, they dote upon John, and grudge this preference of Christ above him: Well saith John, I see a man can receive (that is, perceive) nothing, except it be given him from heaven. The labour of ministers if all lost labour, unless the grace of God make it effectual. Men do not understand that which is made most plain, nor believe that which is made most evident, unless it be given them from heaven to understand and believe it.

      (2.) John appeals to the testimony he had formerly given concerning Christ (v. 28): You can bear me witness that I said, again and again, I am not the Christ, but I am sent before him. See how steady and constant John was in his testimony to Christ, and not as a reed shaken with the wind; neither the frowns of the chief priests, nor the flatteries of his own disciples, could make him change his note. Now this serves here, [1.] As a conviction to his disciples of the unreasonableness of their complaint. They had spoken of the witness which their master bore to Jesus (v. 26): "Now," saith John, "do you not remember what the testimony was that I did bear? Call that to mind, and you will see your own cavil answered. Did I not say, I am not the Christ? Why then do you set me up as a rival with him that is? Did I not say, I am sent before him? Why then does it seem strange to you that I should stand by and give way to him?" [2.] It is a comfort to himself that he had never given his disciples any occasion thus to set him up in competition with Christ; but, on the contrary, had particularly cautioned them against this mistake, though he might have made a hand of it for himself. It is a satisfaction to faithful ministers when they have done what they could in their places to prevent any extravagances that their people ran into. John had not only not encouraged them to hope that he was the Messiah, but had plainly told them the contrary, which was now a satisfaction to him. It is a common excuse for those who have undue honour paid them, Si populus vult decipi, decipiatur--If the people will be deceived, let them; but that is an ill maxim for those to go by whose business it is to undeceive people. The lip of truth shall be established.

      (3.) John professes the great satisfaction he had in the advancement of Christ and his interest. He was so far from regretting it, as his disciples did, that he rejoiced in it. This he expresses (v. 29) by an elegant similitude. [1.] He compares our Saviour to the bridegroom: "He that hath the bride is the bridegroom. Do all men come to him? It is well, whither else should they go? Has he got the throne in men's affections? Who else should have it? It is his right; to whom should the bride be brought but to the bridegroom?" Christ was prophesied of in the Old Testament as a bridegroom, Ps. xlv. The Word was made flesh, that the disparity of nature might not be a bar to the match. Provision is made for the purifying of the church, that the defilement of sin might be no bar. Christ espouses his church to himself; he has the bride, for he has her love, he has her promise; the church is subject to Christ. As far as particular souls are devoted to him in faith and love, so far the bridegroom has the bride. [2.] He compares himself to the friend of the bridegroom, who attends upon him, to do him honour and service, assists him in prosecuting the match, speaks a good word for him, uses his interest on his behalf, rejoices when the match goes on, and most of all when the point is gained, and he has the bride. All that John had done in preaching and baptizing was to introduce him; and, now that he was come, he had what he wished for: The friend of the bridegroom stands, and hears him; stands expecting him, and waiting for him; rejoices with joy because of the bridegroom's voice, because he is come to the marriage after he had been long expected. Note, First, Faithful ministers are friends of the bridegroom, to recommend him to the affections and choice of the children of men; to bring letters and messages from him, for he courts by proxy; and herein they must be faithful to him. Secondly, The friends of the bridegroom must stand, and hear the bridegroom's voice; must receive instructions from him, and attend his orders; must desire to have proofs of Christ speaking in them, and with them (2 Cor. xiii. 3); that is the bridegroom's voice. Thirdly, The espousing of souls to Jesus Christ, in faith and love, is the fulfilling of the joy of every good minister. If the day of Christ's espousals be the day of the gladness of his heart (Cant. iii. 11), it cannot but be of their too who love him and wish well to his honour and kingdom. Surely they have no greater joy.

      (4.) He owns it highly fit and necessary that the reputation and interest of Christ should be advanced, and his own diminished (v. 30): He must increase, but I must decrease. If they grieve at the growing greatness of the Lord Jesus, they will have more and more occasion to grieve, as those have that indulge themselves in envy and emulation. John speaks of Christ's increase and his own decrease, not only as necessary and unavoidable, which could not be helped and therefore must be borne, but as highly just and agreeable, and affording him entire satisfaction. [1.] He was well pleased to see the kingdom of Christ getting ground: "He must increase. You think he has gained a great deal, but it is nothing to what he will gain." Note, The kingdom of Christ is, and will be, a growing kingdom, like the light of the morning, like the grain of mustard-seed. [2.] He was not at all displeased that the effect of this was the diminishing of his own interest: I must decrease. Created excellencies are under this law, they must decrease. I have seen an end of all perfection. Note, First, The shining forth of the glory of Christ eclipses the lustre of all other glory. The glory that stands in competition with Christ, that of the world and the flesh, decreases and loses ground in the soul as the knowledge and love of Christ increase and get ground; but it is here spoken of that which is subservient to him. As the light of the morning increases, that of the morning star decreases. Secondly, If our diminution or abasement may but in the least contribute to the advancement of Christ's name, we must cheerfully submit to it, and be content to be any thing, to be nothing, so that Christ may be all.

      2. John Baptist here advances Christ, and instructs his disciples concerning him, that, instead of grieving that so many come to him, they might come to him themselves.

      (1.) He instructs them concerning the dignity of Christ's person (v. 31): He that cometh from above, that cometh from heaven, is above all. Here, [1.] He supposes his divine origin, that he came from above, from heaven, which bespeaks not only his divine extraction, but his divine nature. He had a being before his conception, a heavenly being. None but he that came from heaven was fit to show us the will of heaven, or the way to heaven. When God would save man, he sent from above. [2.] Hence he infers his sovereign authority: he is above all, above all things and all persons, God over all, blessed for evermore. It is daring presumption to dispute precedency with him. When we come to speak of the honours of the Lord Jesus, we find they transcend all conception and expression, and we can say but this, He is above all. It was said of John Baptist, There is not a greater among them that are born of women. But the descent of Christ from heaven put such a dignity upon him as he was not divested of by his being made flesh; still he was above all. This he further illustrates by the meanness of those who stood in competition with him: He that is of the earth, is earthly, ho on ek tes ges, ek tes ges esti--He that is of the earth is of the earth; he that has his origin of the earth has his food out of the earth, has his converse with earthly things, and his concern is for them. Note, First, Man has his rise out of the earth; not only Adam at first, but we also still are formed out of the clay, Job xxxiii. 6. Look to the rock whence we were hewn. Secondly, Man's constitution is therefore earthly; not only his body frail and mortal, but his soul corrupt and carnal, and its bent and bias strong towards earthly things. The prophets and apostles were of the same mould with other men; they were but earthen vessels, though they had a rich treasure lodged in them; and shall these be set up as rivals with Christ? Let the potsherds strive with the potsherds of the earth; but let them not cope with him that came from heaven.

      (2.) Concerning the excellency and certainty of his doctrine. His disciples were displeased that Christ's preaching was admired, and attended upon, more than his; but he tells them that there was reason enough for it. For,

      [1.] He, for his part, spoke of the earth, and so do all those that are of the earth. The prophets were men and spoke like men; of themselves they could not speak but of the earth, 2 Cor. iii. 5. The preaching of the prophets and of John was but low and flat compared with Christ's preaching; as heaven is high above the earth, so were his thoughts above theirs. By them God spoke on earth, but in Christ he speaketh from heaven.

      [2.] But he that cometh from heaven is not only in his person, but in his doctrine, above all the prophets that ever lived on earth; none teacheth like him. The doctrine of Christ is here recommended to us,

      First, As infallibly sure and certain, and to be entertained accordingly (v. 32): What he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth. See here, 1. Christ's divine knowledge; he testified nothing but what he had seen and heard, what he was perfectly apprized of and thoroughly acquainted with. What he discovered of the divine nature and of the invisible world was what he had seen; what he revealed of the mind of God was what he had heard immediately from him, and not at second hand. The prophets testified what was made known to them in creams and visions by the mediation of angels, but not what they had seen and heard. John was the crier's voice, that said, "Make room for the witness, and keep silence while the charge is given," but then leaves it to the witness to give in his testimony himself, and the judge to give the charge himself. The gospel of Christ is not a doubtful opinion, like an hypothesis or new notion in philosophy, which every one is at liberty to believe or not; but it is a revelation of the mind of God, which is of eternal truth in itself, and of infinite concern to us. 2. His divine grace and goodness: that which he had seen and heard he was pleased to make known to us, because he knew it nearly concerned us. What Paul had seen and heard in the third heavens he could not testify (2 Cor. xii. 4), but Christ knew how to utter what he had seen and heard. Christ's preaching is here called his testifying, to denote, (1.) The convincing evidence of it; it was not reported as news by hearsay, but it was testified as evidence given in court, with great caution and assurance. (2.) The affectionate earnestness of the delivery of it: it was testified with concern and importunity, as Acts xviii. 5.

      From the certainty of Christ's doctrine, John takes occasion, [1.] To lament the infidelity of the most of men: though he testifies what is infallibly true, yet no man receiveth his testimony, that is, very few, next to none, none in comparison with those that refuse it. They receive it not, they will not hear it, they do not heed it, or give credit to it. This he speaks of not only as a matter of wonder, that such a testimony should not be received (Who hath believed our report? How stupid and foolish are the greatest part of mankind, what enemies to themselves!) but as matter of grief; John's disciples grieved that all men came to Christ (v. 26); they thought his followers too many. But John grieves that no man came to him; he thought them too few. Note, The unbelief of sinners is the grief of saints. It was for this that St. Paul had great heaviness, Rom. ix. 2. [2.] He takes occasion to commend the faith of the chosen remnant (v. 33): He that hath received his testimony (and some such there were, though very few) hath set to his seal that God is true. God is true, though we do not set our seal to it; let God be true, and every man a liar; his truth needs not our faith to support it, but by faith we do ourselves the honour and justice to subscribe to his truth, and hereby God reckons himself honoured. God's promises are all yea and amen; by faith we put our amen to them, as Rev. xxii. 20. Observe, He that receives the testimony of Christ subscribes not only to the truth of Christ, but to the truth of God, for his name is the Word of God; the commandments of God and the testimony of Christ are put together, Rev. xii. 17. By believing in Christ we set to our seal, First, That God is true to all the promises which he has made concerning Christ, that which he spoke by the mouth of all his holy prophets; what he swore to our fathers is all accomplished, and not one iota or tittle of it fallen to the ground, Luke i. 70, &c. Acts xiii. 32, 33. Secondly, That he is true to all the promises he has made in Christ; we venture our souls upon God's veracity, being satisfied that he is true; we are willing to deal with him upon trust, and to quit all in this world for a happiness in reversion and out of sight. By this we greatly honour God's faithfulness. Whom we give credit to we give honour to.

      Secondly, It is recommended to us as a divine doctrine; not his own, but his that sent him (v. 34): For he whom God hath sent speaketh the word of God, which he was sent to speak, and enabled to speak; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him. The prophets were as messengers that brought letters from heaven; but Christ came under the character of an ambassador, and treats with us as such; for, 1. He spoke the words of God, and nothing he said savoured of human infirmity; both substance and language were divine. He proved himself sent of God (ch. iii. 2), and therefore his words are to be received as the words of God. By this rule we may try the spirits: those that speak as the oracles of God, and prophesy according to the proportion of faith, are to be received as sent of God. 2. He spoke as no other prophet did; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure to him. None can speak the words of God without the Spirit of God, 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. The Old-Testament prophets had the Spirit, and in different degrees, 2 Kings ii. 9, 10. But, whereas God gave them the Spirit by measure (1 Cor. xii. 4), he gave him to Christ without measure; all fulness dwelt in him, the fulness of the Godhead, an immeasurable fulness. The Spirit was not in Christ as in a vessel, but as in a fountain, as in a bottomless ocean. "The prophets that had the Spirit in a limited manner, only with respect to some particular revelation, sometimes spoke of themselves; but he that had the Spirit always residing in him, without stint, always spoke the words of God." So Dr. Whitby.

      (3.) Concerning the power and authority he is invested with, which gives him the pre-eminence above all others, and a more excellent name than they.

      [1.] He is the beloved Son of the Father (v. 35): The Father loveth the Son. The prophets were faithful as servants, but Christ as a Son; they were employed as servants, but Christ beloved as a son, always his delight, Prov. viii. 30. The Father was well pleased in him; not only he did love him, but he doth love him; he continued his love to him even in his estate of humiliation, loved him never the less for his poverty and sufferings.

      [2.] He is Lord of all. The Father, as an evidence of his love for him, hath given all things into his hand. Love is generous. The Father took such a complacency and had such a confidence in him that he constituted him the great feoffee in trust for mankind. Having given him the Spirit without measure, he gave him all things; for he was hereby qualified to be master and manager of all. Note, It is the honour of Christ, and the unspeakable comfort of all Christians, that the Father hath given all things into the hands of the Mediator. First, All power; so it is explained, Matt. xxviii. 18. All the works of creation being put under his feet, all the affairs of redemption are put into his hand; he is Lord of all. Angels are his servants; devils are his captives. He has power over all flesh, the heathen given him for his inheritance. The kingdom of providence is committed to his administration. He has power to settle the terms of the covenant of peace as the great plenipotentiary, to govern his church as the great lawgiver, to dispense divine favours as the great almoner, and to call all to account as the great Judge. Both the golden sceptre and the iron rod are given into his hand. Secondly, All grace is given into his hand as the channel of conveyance; all things, all those good things which God intended to give to the children of men; eternal life, and all its preliminaries. We are unworthy that the Father should give those things into our hands, for we have made ourselves the children of his wrath; he hath therefore appointed the Son of his love to be trustee for us, and the things he intended for us he gives into his hands, who is worthy, and has merited both honours for himself and favours for us. They are given into his hands, by him to be given into ours. This is a great encouragement to faith, that the riches of the new covenant are deposited in so sure, so kind, so good a hand, the hand of him that purchased them for us, and us for himself, who is able to keep all that which both God and believers have agreed to commit to him.

      [3.] He is the object of that faith which is made the great condition of eternal happiness, and herein he has the pre-eminence above all others: He that believeth on the Son, hath life, v. 36. We have here the application of what he had said concerning Christ and his doctrine; and it is the conclusion of the whole matter. If God has put this honour upon the Son, we must by faith give honour to him. As God offers and conveys good things to us by the testimony of Jesus Christ, whose word is the vehicle of divine favours, so we receive and partake of those favours by believing the testimony, and entertaining that word as true and good; this way of receiving fitly answers that way of giving. We have here the sum of that gospel which is to be preached to every creature, Mark xvi. 16. Here is,

      First, The blessed state of all true Christians: He that believes on the Son hath everlasting life. Note, 1. It is the character of every true Christian that he believes on the Son of God; not only believes him, that what he saith is true, but believes on him, consents to him, and confides in him. The benefit of true Christianity is no less than everlasting life; this is what Christ came to purchase for us and confer upon us; it can be no less than the happiness of an immortal soul in an immortal God. 2. True believers, even now, have everlasting life; not only they shall have it hereafter, but they have it now. For, (1.) They have very good security for it. The deed by which it passeth is sealed and delivered to them, and so they have it; it is put into the hands of their guardian for them, and so they have it, though the use be not yet transferred into possession. They have the Son of God, and in him they have life; and the Spirit of God, the earnest of this life. (2.) They have the comfortable foretastes of it, in present communion with God and the tokens of his love. Grace is glory begun.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

1 sn See the note on Pharisees in 1:24.

2 tn Grk "a ruler of the Jews" (denoting a member of the Sanhedrin, the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

3 tn Grk "him"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

4 tn Or "during the night."

sn Possibly Nicodemus came...at night because he was afraid of public association with Jesus, or he wanted a lengthy discussion without interruptions; no explanation for the timing of the interview is given by the author. But the timing is significant for John in terms of the light-darkness motif - compare John 9:4, 11:10, 13:30 (especially), 19:39, and 21:3. Out of the darkness of his life and religiosity Nicodemus came to the Light of the world. The author probably had multiple meanings or associations in mind here, as is often the case.

5 sn The reference to signs (σημεῖα, shmeia) forms a link with John 2:23-25. Those people in Jerusalem believed in Jesus because of the signs he had performed. Nicodemus had apparently seen them too. But for Nicodemus all the signs meant is that Jesus was a great teacher sent from God. His approach to Jesus was well-intentioned but theologically inadequate; he had failed to grasp the messianic implications of the miraculous signs.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

6 tn Grk "answered and said to him."

7 tn Grk "Truly, truly, I say to you."

8 tn The word ἄνωθεν (anwqen) has a double meaning, either "again" (in which case it is synonymous with παλίν [palin]) or "from above" (BDAG 92 s.v. ἄνωθεν). This is a favorite technique of the author of the Fourth Gospel, and it is lost in almost all translations at this point. John uses the word 5 times, in 3:3, 7; 3:31; 19:11 and 23. In the latter 3 cases the context makes clear that it means "from above." Here (3:3, 7) it could mean either, but the primary meaning intended by Jesus is "from above." Nicodemus apparently understood it the other way, which explains his reply, "How can a man be born when he is old? He can't enter his mother's womb a second time and be born, can he?" The author uses the technique of the "misunderstood question" often to bring out a particularly important point: Jesus says something which is misunderstood by the disciples or (as here) someone else, which then gives Jesus the opportunity to explain more fully and in more detail what he really meant.

sn Or born again. The Greek word ἄνωθεν (anwqen) can mean both "again" and "from above," giving rise to Nicodemus' misunderstanding about a second physical birth (v. 4).

9 sn What does Jesus' statement about not being able to see the kingdom of God mean within the framework of John's Gospel? John uses the word kingdom (βασιλεία, basileia) only 5 times (3:3, 5; 18:36 [3x]). Only here is it qualified with the phrase of God. The fact that John does not stress the concept of the kingdom of God does not mean it is absent from his theology, however. Remember the messianic implications found in John 2, both the wedding and miracle at Cana and the cleansing of the temple. For Nicodemus, the term must surely have brought to mind the messianic kingdom which Messiah was supposed to bring. But Nicodemus had missed precisely this point about who Jesus was. It was the Messiah himself with whom Nicodemus was speaking. Whatever Nicodemus understood, it is clear that the point is this: He misunderstood Jesus' words. He over-literalized them, and thought Jesus was talking about repeated physical birth, when he was in fact referring to new spiritual birth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

10 The Bible.org ministry has provided the NET Bible® at no cost for inclusion in this Bible study software. You can learn about bible.org’s Ministry First model where we share the NET Bible and thousands of other copyrighted biblical materials at www.bible.org/ministryfirst . Ministry First means what it implies, that we’ve chosen to put ministry ahead of money. We believe that the Bible teaches the ministry first concept very clearly – and we think everyone in the world should have free access to trustworthy Bibles and study materials. Tell your friends to get their free NET Bible and free access to thousands of trustworthy Bible study materials online at www.bible.org . This free NET Bible® module includes all the translators’ notes for the first chapter of each book plus all the notes on verses 1-3 for the remaining 1,123 chapters in the Bible. We encourage you to upgrade this free version to the premier full NET Bible® version containing all 60,932 notes. This is the most complete set of translators’ notes in any Bible translation and illuminates many important issues of translation and interpretation. You can upgrade by going to www.bible.org/upgrade where you can purchase the full NET Bible or even download basic versions with all 60,932 translators’ notes for free! Your purchases and donations help ensure the ongoing supply of new resources and tools from Bible.org, which is the world’s largest source of trustworthy – and free – Bible study materials.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

11 The Bible.org ministry has provided the NET Bible® at no cost for inclusion in this Bible study software. You can learn about bible.org’s Ministry First model where we share the NET Bible and thousands of other copyrighted biblical materials at www.bible.org/ministryfirst . Ministry First means what it implies, that we’ve chosen to put ministry ahead of money. We believe that the Bible teaches the ministry first concept very clearly – and we think everyone in the world should have free access to trustworthy Bibles and study materials. Tell your friends to get their free NET Bible and free access to thousands of trustworthy Bible study materials online at www.bible.org . This free NET Bible® module includes all the translators’ notes for the first chapter of each book plus all the notes on verses 1-3 for the remaining 1,123 chapters in the Bible. We encourage you to upgrade this free version to the premier full NET Bible® version containing all 60,932 notes. This is the most complete set of translators’ notes in any Bible translation and illuminates many important issues of translation and interpretation. You can upgrade by going to www.bible.org/upgrade where you can purchase the full NET Bible or even download basic versions with all 60,932 translators’ notes for free! Your purchases and donations help ensure the ongoing supply of new resources and tools from Bible.org, which is the world’s largest source of trustworthy – and free – Bible study materials.

12


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

13 The Bible.org ministry has provided the NET Bible® at no cost for inclusion in this Bible study software. You can learn about bible.org’s Ministry First model where we share the NET Bible and thousands of other copyrighted biblical materials at www.bible.org/ministryfirst . Ministry First means what it implies, that we’ve chosen to put ministry ahead of money. We believe that the Bible teaches the ministry first concept very clearly – and we think everyone in the world should have free access to trustworthy Bibles and study materials. Tell your friends to get their free NET Bible and free access to thousands of trustworthy Bible study materials online at www.bible.org . This free NET Bible® module includes all the translators’ notes for the first chapter of each book plus all the notes on verses 1-3 for the remaining 1,123 chapters in the Bible. We encourage you to upgrade this free version to the premier full NET Bible® version containing all 60,932 notes. This is the most complete set of translators’ notes in any Bible translation and illuminates many important issues of translation and interpretation. You can upgrade by going to www.bible.org/upgrade where you can purchase the full NET Bible or even download basic versions with all 60,932 translators’ notes for free! Your purchases and donations help ensure the ongoing supply of new resources and tools from Bible.org, which is the world’s largest source of trustworthy – and free – Bible study materials.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

14

15


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

16

17


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

18

19


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

20

21


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

22

23

24

25


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

26

27


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

28

29

30


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

31

32

33

34


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,15:

35


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

36

37

38

39


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

40


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

41

42

43


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

44

45


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

46


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

47


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

48

49

50

51


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

52


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

53

54


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

55


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

56


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,28:

57


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,29:

58

59


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,30:

60


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

61

62

63

64


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

65


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

66

67


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

68


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

69

70

71


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

Now (δε). So often in John δε is explanatory and transitional, not adversative. Nicodemus is an instance of Christ's knowledge of men (2:25) and of one to whom he did trust himself unlike those in 2:24. As a Pharisee "he belonged to that party which with all its bigotry contained a salt of true patriotism and could rear such cultured and high-toned men as Gamaliel and Paul" (Marcus Dods).

Named Nicodemus (Νικοδημος ονομα). Same construction as in 1:6, "Nicodemus name to him." So Re 6:8. It is a Greek name and occurs in Josephus (Ant. XIV. iii. 2) as the name of an ambassador from Aristobulus to Pompey. Only in John in N.T. (here, 7:50; 19:39). He was a Pharisee, a member of the Sanhedrin, and wealthy. There is no evidence that he was the young ruler of Lu 18:18 because of αρχων (ruler) here.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

The same (ουτος). "This one."

By night (νυκτος). Genitive of time. That he came at all is remarkable, not because there was any danger as was true at a later period, but because of his own prominence. He wished to avoid comment by other members of the Sanhedrin and others. Jesus had already provoked the opposition of the ecclesiastics by his assumption of Messianic authority over the temple. There is no ground for assigning this incident to a later period, for it suits perfectly here. Jesus was already in the public eye (2:23) and the interest of Nicodemus was real and yet he wished to be cautious.

Rabbi (Ραββε). See on 1:38. Technically Jesus was not an acknowledged Rabbi of the schools, but Nicodemus does recognize him as such and calls him "My Master" just as Andrew and John did (1:38). It was a long step for Nicodemus as a Pharisee to take, for the Pharisees had closely scrutinized the credentials of the Baptist in 1:19-24 (Milligan and Moulton's Comm.).

We know (οιδαμεν). Second perfect indicative first person plural. He seems to speak for others of his class as the blind man does in 9:31. Westcott thinks that Nicodemus has been influenced partly by the report of the commission sent to the Baptist (1:19-27).

Thou art a teacher come from God (απο θεου εληλυθας διδασκαλος). "Thou hast come from God as a teacher." Second perfect active indicative of ερχομα and predicative nominative διδασκαλος. This is the explanation of Nicodemus for coming to Jesus, obscure Galilean peasant as he seemed, evidence that satisfied one of the leaders in Pharisaism.

Can do (δυνατα ποιειν). "Can go on doing" (present active infinitive of ποιεω and so linear).

These signs that thou doest (ταυτα τα σημεια α συ ποιεις). Those mentioned in 2:23 that convinced so many in the crowd and that now appeal to the scholar. Note συ (thou) as quite out of the ordinary. The scorn of Jesus by the rulers held many back to the end (Joh 12:42), but Nicodemus dares to feel his way.

Except God be with him (εαν μη η ο θεος μετ' αυτου). Condition of the third class, presented as a probability, not as a definite fact. He wanted to know more of the teaching accredited thus by God. Jesus went about doing good because God was with him, Peter says (Ac 10:38).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

Except a man be born anew (εαν μη τις γεννηθη ανωθεν). Another condition of the third class, undetermined but with prospect of determination. First aorist passive subjunctive of γενναω. Ανωθεν. Originally "from above" (Mr 15:38), then "from heaven" (Joh 3:31), then "from the first" (Lu 1:3), and then "again" (παλιν ανωθεν, Ga 4:9). Which is the meaning here? The puzzle of Nicodemus shows (δευτερον, verse 4) that he took it as "again," a second birth from the womb. The Vulgate translates it by renatus fuerit denuo. But the misapprehension of Nicodemus does not prove the meaning of Jesus. In the other passages in John (3:31; 19:11,23) the meaning is "from above" (δεσυπερ) and usually so in the Synoptics. It is a second birth, to be sure, regeneration, but a birth from above by the Spirit.

He cannot see the kingdom of God (ου δυνατα ιδειν την βασιλειαν του θεου). To participate in it as in Lu 9:27. For this use of ιδειν (second aorist active infinitive of οραω) see Joh 8:51; Re 18:7.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

Being old (γερων ων). Nicodemus was probably familiar with the notion of re-birth for proselytes to Judaism for the Gentiles, but not with the idea that a Jew had to be reborn. But "this stupid misunderstanding" (Bernard) of the meaning of Jesus is precisely what John represents Nicodemus as making. How "old" Nicodemus was we do not know, but surely too old to be the young ruler of Lu 18:18 as Bacon holds. The blunder of Nicodemus is emphasized by the second question with the μη expecting the negative answer. The use of δευτερον adds to the grotesqueness of his blunder. The learned Pharisee is as jejune in spiritual insight as the veriest tyro. This is not an unheard of phenomenon.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

Of water and the Spirit (εξ υδατος κα πνευματος). Nicodemus had failed utterly to grasp the idea of the spiritual birth as essential to entrance into the Kingdom of God. He knew only Jews as members of that kingdom, the political kingdom of Pharisaic hope which was to make all the world Jewish (Pharisaic) under the King Messiah. Why does Jesus add εξ υδατος here? In verse 3 we have "ανωθεν" (from above) which is repeated in verse 7, while in verse 8 we have only εκ του πνευματος (of the Spirit) in the best manuscripts. Many theories exist. One view makes baptism, referred to by εξ υδατος (coming up out of water), essential to the birth of the Spirit, as the means of obtaining the new birth of the Spirit. If so, why is water mentioned only once in the three demands of Jesus (3,5,7)? Calvin makes water and Spirit refer to the one act (the cleansing work of the Spirit). Some insist on the language in verse 6 as meaning the birth of the flesh coming in a sac of water in contrast to the birth of the Spirit. One wonders after all what was the precise purpose of Jesus with Nicodemus, the Pharisaic ceremonialist, who had failed to grasp the idea of spiritual birth which is a commonplace to us. By using water (the symbol before the thing signified) first and adding Spirit, he may have hoped to turn the mind of Nicodemus away from mere physical birth and, by pointing to the baptism of John on confession of sin which the Pharisees had rejected, to turn his attention to the birth from above by the Spirit. That is to say the mention of "water" here may have been for the purpose of helping Nicodemus without laying down a fundamental principle of salvation as being by means of baptism. Bernard holds that the words υδατος κα (water and) do not belong to the words of Jesus, but "are a gloss, added to bring the saying of Jesus into harmony with the belief and practice of a later generation." Here Jesus uses εισελθειν (enter) instead of ιδειν (see) of verse 3, but with the same essential idea (participation in the kingdom).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

That which is born (το γεγεννημενον). Perfect passive articular participle. The sharp contrast between flesh (σαρξ) and Spirit (πνευμα), drawn already in 1:13, serves to remind Nicodemus of the crudity of his question in 3:4 about a second physical birth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

Marvel not (μη θαυμασηις). "Do not begin to wonder" (ingressive first aorist active subjunctive with μη), as clearly Nicodemus had done. In John the word θαυμαζω usually means "unintelligent wonder" (Bernard).

Ye must be born anew (δε υμας γεννηθηνα ανωθεν). Jesus repeats the point in verse 3 (δε and the infinitive instead of εαν μη and the subjunctive) with ανωθεν (from above) only and not εξ υδατος.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

The wind (το πνευμα). In Greek πνευμα means either wind or spirit as spiritus does in Latin (so also in Hebrew and Syriac). Wycliff follows the Latin and keeps spirit here and Marcus Dods argues for it. The word πνευμα occurs 370 times in the N.T. and never means wind elsewhere except in a quotation from the O.T. (Heb 1:7 from Ps 104:4), though common in the LXX. On the other hand πνεω (bloweth, πνε) occurs five times elsewhere in the N.T. and always of the wind (like Joh 6:18). So φωνη can be either sound (as of wind) or voice (as of the Spirit). In simple truth either sense of πνευμα can be taken here as one wills. Tholuck thinks that the night-wind swept through the narrow street as Jesus spoke. In either case the etymology of πνευμα is "wind" from πνεω, to blow. The Spirit is the use of πνευμα as metaphor. Certainly the conclusion "of the Spirit" is a direct reference to the Holy Spirit who works his own way beyond our comprehension even as men even yet do not know the law of the wind.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

How? (Πωσ;) Nicodemus is not helped either by the use of υδωρ or πνευμα to understand δε γεννηθηνα ανωθεν (the necessity of the birth from above or regeneration). He falls back into his "stupid misunderstanding." There are none so dull as those who will not see. Preoccupation prevents insight. Literally one must often empty his mind to receive new truth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

The teacher of Israel (ο διδασκαλος του Ισραηλ). The well-known or the authorized (the accepted) teacher of the Israel of God. Note both articles.

And understandest not these things? (κα ταυτα ου γινωσκεισ;). After being told by Jesus and after so propitious a start. His Pharisaic theology had made him almost proof against spiritual apprehension. It was outside of his groove (rote, rut, rot, the three terrible r's of mere traditionalism).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

We speak that we do know (ο οιδαμεν λαλουμεν). Jesus simply claims knowledge of what he has tried to make plain to the famous Rabbi without success. John uses λαλεω some 60 times, half of them by Jesus, very little distinction existing between the use of λαλεω and λεγω in John. Originally λαλεω referred to the chatter of birds. Note John's frequent use of αμην αμην and λεγω (double emphasis).

And bear witness of that we have seen (κα ο εωρακαμεν μαρτυρουμεν). The same use of neuter singular relative ο as before. Perfect active indicative of οραω. He is not a dreamer, guesser, or speculator. He is bearing witness from personal knowledge, strange as this may seem to Nicodemus.

And ye receive not our witness (κα την μαρτυριαν ημων ου λαμβανετε). This is the tragedy of the matter as John has shown (1:11,26) and as will continue to be true even today. Jesus probably associates here with himself ("we") those who have personal experience of grace and so are qualified as witnesses. Note the plural in 1Jo 1:1f. Bernard thinks that John has here read into the words of Jesus the convictions of a later age, a serious charge to make.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

If I told (ε ειπον). Condition of the first class, assumed to be true.

Earthly things (τα επιγεια). Things upon the earth like τα επ της γης (Col 3:2), not things of an earthly nature or worldly or sinful. The work of the kingdom of God including the new birth which Nicodemus did not understand belongs to τα επιγεια.

If I tell you heavenly things (εαν ειπω υμιν τα επουρανια). Condition of the third class, undetermined. What will Nicodemus do in that case? By τα επουρανια Jesus means the things that take place in heaven like the deep secrets of the purpose of God in the matter of redemption such as the necessity of the lifting up of Christ as shown in verse 14. Both Godet and Westcott note that the two types of teaching here pointed out by Jesus (the earthly, the heavenly) correspond in general to the difference between the Synoptics (the earthly) and the Fourth Gospel (the heavenly), a difference noted here in the Fourth Gospel as shown by Jesus himself. Hence the one should not be pitted against the other. There are specimens of the heavenly in the Synoptics as in Mt 11:25ff.; Lu 10:18ff.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

But he that descended out of heaven (ε μη ο εκ του ουρανου καταβας). The Incarnation of the Pre-existent Son of God who was in heaven before he came down and so knows what he is telling about "the heavenly things." There is no allusion to the Ascension which came later. This high conception of Christ runs all through the Gospel and is often in Christ's own words as here.

Which is in heaven (ο ων εν τω ουρανω). This phrase is added by some manuscripts, not by Aleph B L W 33, and, if genuine, would merely emphasize the timeless existence of God's Son who is in heaven even while on earth. Probably a gloss. But "the Son of man" is genuine. He is the one who has come down out of heaven.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

Moses lifted up the serpent (Μωυσης υψωσεν τον οφιν). Reference to Nu 21:7ff. where Moses set the brazen serpent upon the standard that those who believed might look and live. Jesus draws a vivid parallel between the act of Moses and the Cross on which he himself (the Son of man) "must" (δε, one of the heavenly things) "be lifted up" (υψωθηνα, first aorist passive infinitive of υψοω, a word not used about the brazen serpent). In John υψοω always refers to the Cross (8:28; 12:32,34), though to the Ascension in Acts (Ac 2:33; 5:31). Jesus is complimenting the standing and intelligence of Nicodemus as "the teacher of Israel" by telling him this great truth and fact that lies at the basis of the work of the kingdom of God (the atoning death of Christ on the Cross).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,15:

That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life (ινα πας ο πιστευων εν αυτω εχη ζωην αιωνιον). Final use of ινα with present active subjunctive of εχω, that he may keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in John αιωνιος occurs with ζωη, 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in 1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life of God in Christ (5:26; 17:3; 1Jo 5:12). So here εν αυτω (in him) is taken with εχη rather than with πιστευων. The interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with verse 15. In verses 16-21 we have past tenses constantly as is natural for the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There are phrases like the Prologue (verse 19; 1:9-11). "Only begotten" does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is in 1:14,18; 1Jo 4:9. John often puts in explanatory comments (1:16-18; 12:37-41).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

For so (ουτως γαρ). This use of γαρ is quite in John's style in introducing his comments (2:25; 4:8; 5:13, etc.). This "Little Gospel" as it is often called, this "comfortable word" (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In verses 16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus.

Loved (ηγαπησεν). First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω, the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (14:23; 17:23; 1Jo 3:1; 4:10) of God's love for man (cf. 2Th 2:16; Ro 5:8; Eph 2:4). In 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω and φιλεω. Αγαπαω is used also for love of men for men (13:34), for Jesus (8:42), for God (1Jo 4:10).

The world (τον κοσμον). The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God's love appears also in 2Co 5:19; Ro 5:8.

That he gave (ωστε εδωκεν). The usual classical construction with ωστε and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Ga 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Mt 13:32) as well as purpose (Mt 10:1), though even this is rare.

His only begotten Son (τον υιον τον μονογενη). "The Son the only begotten." For this word see on 1:14,18; 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ινα-εχη precisely reproduces the close of 3:15 save that εις αυτον takes the place of εν αυτω (see 1:12) and goes certainly with πιστευων (not with εχη as εν αυτω in verse 15) and the added clause "should not perish but" (μη απολητα αλλα, second aorist middle subjunctive, intransitive, of απολλυμ, to destroy). The same contrast between "perish" and "eternal life" (for this world and the next) appears also in 10:28. On "perish" see also 17:12.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

For God sent not the Son (ου γαρ απεστειλεν ο θεος τον υιον). Explanation (γαρ) of God's sending the Son into the world. First aorist active indicative of αποστελλω. John uses both αποστελλω from which comes αποστολος (3:34; 5:36,38, etc.) and πεμπω (4:34; 5:23,24,30, etc.) for God's sending the Son and πεμπω more frequently, but with no real difference in meaning. All the Gospels use ο υιος in the absolute sense in contrast with the Father (Mr 13:32; Mt 11:27; Lu 10:22).

To judge (ινα κρινη). Final clause with ινα and the present (or aorist) active subjunctive of κρινω. The Messiah does judge the world as Jesus taught (Mt 25:31f.; Joh 5:27), but this was not the primary or the only purpose of his coming. See on Mt 7:1 for κρινω, to pick out, select, approve, condemn, used so often and in so many varying contexts in the N.T.

But that the world should be saved through him (αλλ ινα σωθη ο κοσμος δι' αυτου). First aorist passive subjunctive of σωζω, the common verb to save (from σως, safe and sound), from which σωτηρ (Saviour) comes (the Saviour of the world, 4:42; 1Jo 4:14) and σωτηρια (salvation, 4:22 here only in John). The verb σωζω is often used for physical health (Mr 5:28), but here of the spiritual salvation as in 5:34.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

Is not judged (ου κρινετα). Present passive indicative. Trust in Christ prevents condemnation, for he takes our place and pays the penalty for sin for all who put their case in his hands (Ro 8:32f.). The believer in Christ as Saviour does not come into judgment (Joh 5:24).

Hath been judged already (ηδη κεκριτα). Perfect passive indicative of κρινω. Judgment has already been passed on the one who refuses to believe in Christ as the Saviour sent by the Father, the man who is not willing to come to Christ for life (5:40).

Because he hath not believed (οτ μη πεπιστευκεν). Perfect active indicative of πιστευω, has taken a permanent attitude of refusal. Here οτ μη states the reason subjectively as the judgment of the Judge in any such case (ο μη πιστευων already mentioned) while in 1Jo 5:10 οτ ου πεπιστευκεν gives the reason objectively (ου instead of μη) conceived as an actual case and no longer hypothetical. See 1:12 for εις το ονομα with πιστευω (believing on the name) and 1:14 for μονογενους (only begotten) and also 3:16.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

And this is the judgment (αυτη δε εστιν η κρισις). A thoroughly Johannine phrase for sequence of thought (15:12; 17:3; 1Jo 1:5; 5:11,14; 3Jo 1:6). It is more precisely the process of judging (κρι-σις) rather than the result (κρι-μα) of the judgment. "It is no arbitrary sentence, but the working out of a moral law" (Bernard).

The light is come (το φως εληλυθεν). Second perfect active indicative of ερχομα, a permanent result as already explained in the Prologue concerning the Incarnation (1:4,5,9,11). Jesus is the Light of the world.

Loved darkness (ηγαπησαν το σκοτος). Job (Job 24:13) spoke of men rebelling against the light. Here το σκοτος, common word for moral and spiritual darkness (1Th 5:5), though η σκοτια in Joh 1:5. "Darkness" is common in John as a metaphor for the state of sinners (8:12; 12:35, 46; 1Jo 1:6; 2:8,9,11). Jesus himself is the only moral and spiritual light of the world (8:12) as he dared claim to his enemies. The pathos of it all is that men fall in love with the darkness of sin and rebel against the light like denizens of the underworld, "for their works were evil (πονηρα)." When the light appears, they scatter to their holes and dens. Πονηρος (from πονος, toil, πονεω, to toil) is used of the deeds of the world by Jesus (7:7). In the end the god of this world blinds men's eyes so that they do not see the light (2Co 4:4). The fish in the Mammoth Cave have no longer eyes, but only sockets where eyes used to be. The evil one has a powerful grip on the world (1Jo 5:19).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,20:

That doeth ill (ο φαυλα πρασσων). The word φαυλος means first worthless and then wicked (usually so in N.T.) and both senses occur in the papyri. In 5:29 see contrast between αγαθα ποιεω (doing good things) and φαυλα πρασσω (practising evil things).

Hateth the light (μισε το φως). Hence talks against it, ridicules Christ, Christianity, churches, preachers, etc. Does it in talk, magazines, books, in a supercilious tone of sheer ignorance.

Cometh not to the light (ουκ ερχετα προς το φως). The light hurts his eyes, reveals his own wickedness, makes him thoroughly uncomfortable. Hence he does not read the Bible, he does not come to church, he does not pray. He goes on in deeper darkness.

Lest his works should be reproved (ινα μη ελεγχθη τα εργα αυτου). Negative final clause (ινα μη) with first aorist passive subjunctive of ελεγχω, old word to correct a fault, to reprove, to convict. See also 8:46; 16:8. To escape this unpleasant process the evil man cuts out Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

That doeth the truth (ο ποιων την αληθειαν). See 1Jo 1:6 for this striking phrase.

Comes to the light (ερχετα προς το φως). Is drawn by the light, spiritual heliotropes, not driven from it.

That may be made manifest (ινα φανερωθη). Final ινα with first aorist passive subjunctive of φανεροω.

They have been wrought in God (εν θεω εστιν ειργασμενα). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of εργαζομα. He does not claim that they are perfect, only that they have been wrought in the sphere of and in the power of God. Hence he wants the light turned on.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

After these things (μετα ταυτα). Transition after the interview with Nicodemus. For the phrase see 5:1; 6:1; 7:1.

Into the land of Judea (εις την Ιουδαιαν γην). Into the country districts outside of Jerusalem. The only example of this phrase in the N.T., but "the region of Judea" (η Ιουδαια χωρα) in Mr 1:5.

He tarried (διετριβεν). Descriptive imperfect active of διατριβω, old verb to rub between or hard, to spend time (Ac 14:3).

Baptized (εβαπτιζεν). Imperfect active of βαπτιζω. "He was baptizing." The six disciples were with him and in 4:2 John explains that Jesus did the baptizing through the disciples.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

John was also baptizing (ην δε κα ο Ιωανης βαπτιζων). Periphrastic imperfect picturing the continued activity of the Baptist simultaneous with the growing work of Jesus. There was no real rivalry except in people's minds.

In Aenon near to Salim (εν Αινων εγγυς του Σαλειμ). It is not clearly known where this place was. Eusebius locates it in the Jordan valley south of Beisan west of the river where are many springs (fountains, eyes). There is a place called Salim east of Shechem in Samaria with a village called 'Aimen, but with no water there. There may have been water there then, of course.

Because there was much water there (οτ υδατα πολλα ην εκε). "Because many waters were there." Not for drinking, but for baptizing. "Therefore even in summer baptism by immersion could be continued" (Marcus Dods).

And they came, and were baptized (κα παρεγινοντο κα εβαπτιζοντο). Imperfects both, one middle and the other passive, graphically picturing the long procession of pilgrims who came to John confessing their sins and receiving baptism at his hands.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

For John had not yet been cast into prison (ουπω γαρ ην βεβλημενος εις την φυλακην Ιωανης). Periphrastic past perfect indicative of βαλλω explaining (γαρ) why John was still baptizing, the reason for the imprisonment having been given by Luke (Lu 3:19f.).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

A questioning (ζητησις). Old word from ζητεω. See Ac 15:2 for the word where also ζητημα (question) occurs. Ζητησις (process of inquiry) means a meticulous dispute (1Ti 6:4).

With a Jew (μετα Ιουδαιου). So correct text, not Ιουδαιων (Jews). Probably some Jew resented John's baptism of Jesus as implying impurity or that they were like Gentiles (cf. proselyte baptism).

About purifying (περ καθαρισμου). See 2:6 for the word. The committee from the Sanhedrin had challenged John's right to baptize (1:25). The Jews had various kinds of baptisms or dippings (Heb 6:2), "baptisms of cups and pots and brazen vessels" (Mr 6:4). The disciples of John came to him with the dispute (the first known baptismal controversy, on the meaning of the ceremony) and with a complaint.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

Rabbi (Ραββε). Greeting John just like Jesus (1:38; 3:2).

Beyond Jordan (περαν του Ιορδανου). Evident reference to John's witness to Jesus told in 1:29-34.

To whom thou hast borne witness (ω συ μεμαρτυρηκας). Note avoidance of calling the name of Jesus. Perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω so common in John (1:7, etc.). These disciples of John are clearly jealous of Jesus as a rival of John and they distinctly blame John for his endorsement of one who is already eclipsing him in popularity.

The same baptizeth (ουτος βαπτιζε). "This one is baptizing." Not personally (4:2), as John did, but through his six disciples.

And all men come to him (κα παντες ερχοντα προς αυτον). Linear present middle indicative, "are coming." The sight of the growing crowds with Jesus and the dwindling crowds with John stirred John's followers to keenest jealousy. What a life-like picture of ministerial jealousy in all ages.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

Except it have been given him from heaven (εαν μη η δεδομενον αυτω εκ του ουρανου). See the same idiom in Joh 6:65 (cf. 19:11). Condition of third class, undetermined with prospect of determination, εαν μη with the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of διδωμ. The perfect tense is rare in the subjunctive and an exact rendering into English is awkward, "unless it be granted him from heaven." See 1Co 4:7 where Paul says the same thing.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,28:

I said (ειπον). As in 1:20,23. He had always put Jesus ahead of him as the Messiah (1:15).

Before him (εμπροσθεν εκεινου). "Before that one" (Jesus) as his forerunner simply.

I am sent (απεσταλμενος ειμ). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of αποστελλω.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,29:

The bridegroom (νυμφιος). Predicate nominative without article. Both νυμφη (bride) and νυμφιος are old and common words. Jesus will use this metaphor of himself as the Bridegroom (Mr 2:19) and Paul develops it (2Co 11:2; Eph 5:23-32) and so in Revelation (19:7; 21:2). John is only like the paranymph (παρανυμφιος) or "the friend of the bridegroom." His office is to bring groom and bride together. So he stands expectant (εστηκως, second perfect active participle of ιστημ) and listens (ακουων, present active participle of ακουω) with joy ( rejoiceth greatly , χαρα χαιρε, "with joy rejoices") to the music of the bridegroom's voice.

This my joy therefore is fulfilled (αυτη ουν η χαρα πεπληρωτα). Perfect passive indicative of πληροω, stands filled like a cup to the brim with joy.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,30:

Must (δε). It has to be (see 3:14). He is to go on growing (present active infinitive αυξανειν) while I go on decreasing (present passive infinitive ελαττουσθα, from comparative ελαττων, less). These are the last words that we have from John till the despondent message from the dungeon in Machaerus whether Jesus is after all the Messiah (Mt 11:2; Lu 7:19). He went on to imprisonment, suspense, martyrdom, while Jesus grew in popular favour till he had his via dolorosa. "These last words of St. John are the fulness of religious sacrifice and fitly close his work" (Westcott).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

Is above all (επανω παντων). Ablative case with the compound preposition επανω. See the same idea in Ro 9:5. Here we have the comments of Evangelist (John) concerning the last words of John in verse 30 which place Jesus above himself. He is above all men, not alone above the Baptist. Bernard follows those who treat verses 31-36 as dislocated and put them after verse 21 (the interview with Nicodemus), but they suit better here.

Of the earth (εκ της γης). John is fond of this use of εκ for origin and source of character as in 1:46; 1Jo 4:5. Jesus is the one that comes out of heaven (ο εκ του ουρανου ερχομενος) as he has shown in 1:1-18. Hence he is "above all."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,32:

What he hath seen and heard (ο εωρακεν κα ηκουσεν). Perfect active indicative followed by aorist active indicative, because, as Westcott shows, the first belongs to the very existence of the Son and the latter to his mission. There is no confusion of tenses here.

No man (ουδεις). There were crowds coming to Jesus, but they do not really accept him as Saviour and Lord (1:11; 2:24). It is superficial as time will show. But "no one" is not to be pressed too far, for it is the rhetorical use.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

Hath set his seal (εσφραγισεν). First aorist active indicative of σφραγιζω for which verb see Mt 27:66. The metaphor of sealing is a common one for giving attestation as in 6:27. The one who accepts the witness of Jesus attests that Jesus speaks the message of God.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

The words of God (τα ρηματα του θεου). God sent his Son (3:17) and he speaks God's words.

By measure (εκ μετρου). That is God has put no limit to the Spirit's relation to the Son. God has given the Holy Spirit in his fulness to Christ and to no one else in that sense.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

Hath given all things into his hand (παντα δεδωκεν εν τη χειρ αυτου). John makes the same statement about Jesus in 13:3 (using εις τας χειρας instead of εν τη χειρ). Jesus makes the same claim in 5:19-30; Mt 11:27; 28:18.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

Hath eternal life (εχε ζωην αιωνιον). Has it here and now and for eternity.

That obeyeth not (ο απειθων). "He that is disobedient to the Son." Jesus is the test of human life as Simeon said he would be (Lu 2:34f.). This verb does not occur again in John's Gospel.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

1 Christ teaches Nicodemus the necessity of regeneration,
14 of faith in his death,
16 the great love of God towards the world,
18 and the condemnation for unbelief.
22 Jesus baptizes in Judea.
23 The baptism, witness, and doctrine of John concerning Christ.


10; 7:47-49
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

came.
7:50,51; 12:42,43; 19:38,39; Jud 6:27; Isa 51:7; Php 1:14
Rabbi.
26; 1:38; 20:16
we know.
Mt 22:16; Mr 12:14
for.
5:36; 7:31; 9:16,30-33; 11:47,48; 12:37; 15:24; Ac 2:22; 4:16,17
Ac 10:38
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

Verily.
1:51; Mt 5:18; 2Co 1:19,20; Re 3:14
Except.
5,6; 1:13; Ga 6:15; Eph 2:1; Tit 3:5; Jas 1:18; 1Pe 1:3,23-25
1Jo 2:29; 3:9; 5:1,18
again. or, from above.
Jas 1:17; 3:17
he cannot.
5; 1:5; 12:40; De 29:4; Jer 5:21; Mt 13:11-16; 16:17; 2Co 4:4
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

How.
3; 4:11,12; 6:53,60; 1Co 1:18; 2:14
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

born.
3; Isa 44:3,4; Eze 36:25-27; Mt 3:11; Mr 16:16; Ac 2:38; Eph 5:26
Tit 3:4-7; 1Pe 1:2; 3:21; 1Jo 5:6-8
and of.
1:13; Ro 8:2; 1Co 2:12; 6:11; 1Jo 2:29; 5:1,6-8
cannot.
Mt 5:20; 18:3; 28:19; Lu 13:3,5,24; Ac 2:38; 3:19; Ro 14:17
2Co 5:17,18; Ga 6:15; Eph 2:4-10; 2Th 2:13,14
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

born of the flesh.
Ge 5:3; 6:5,12; Job 14:4; 15:14-16; 25:4; Ps 51:10; Ro 7:5,18,25
Ro 8:1,4,5-9,13; 1Co 15:47-49; 2Co 5:17; Ga 5:16-21,24; Eph 2:3
Col 2:11
that.
Eze 11:19,20; 36:26,27; Ro 8:5,9; 1Co 6:17; Ga 5:17; 1Jo 3:9
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

Marvel.
12; 5:28; 6:61-63
Ye.
3; Job 15:14; Mt 13:33-35; Ro 3:9-19; 9:22-25; 12:1,2; Eph 4:22-24
Col 1:12; Heb 12:14; 1Pe 1:14-16,22; Re 21:27
again. or, from above.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

wind.
Job 37:10-13,16,17,21-23; Ps 107:25,29; Ec 11:4,5; Eze 37:9
Ac 2:2; 4:31; 1Co 2:11; 12:11
so.
1:13; Isa 55:9-13; Mr 4:26-29; Lu 6:43,44; 1Co 2:11; 1Jo 2:29; 3:8,9
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

How.
4; 6:52,60; Pr 4:18; Isa 42:16; Mr 8:24,25; Lu 1:34
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

Art.
Isa 9:16; 29:10-12; 56:10; Jer 8:8,9; Mt 11:25; 15:14; 22:29
and knowest.
De 10:16; 30:6; 1Ch 29:19; Ps 51:6,10; 73:1; Isa 11:6-9; 66:7-9
Jer 31:33; 32:39,40; Eze 11:19; 18:31,32; 36:25-27; 37:23,24
Ro 2:28; Php 3:3; Col 2:11
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

verily.
3,5
We speak.
13,32-34; 1:18; 7:16; 8:14,28,29,38; 12:49; 14:24; Isa 55:4; Mt 11:27
Lu 10:22; 1Jo 1:1-3; 5:6-12; Re 1:5; 3:14
ye.
32; 1:11; 5:31-40,43; 12:37,38; Isa 50:2; 53:1; 65:2; Mt 23:37
Ac 22:18; 28:23-27; 2Co 4:4
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

earthly.
3,5,8; 1Co 3:1,2; Heb 5:11; 1Pe 2:1-3
heavenly.
13-17,31-36; 1:1-14; 1Co 2:7-9; 1Ti 3:16; 1Jo 4:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

no man.
1:18; 6:46; De 30:12; Pr 30:4; Ac 2:34; Ro 10:6; Eph 4:9
but.
6:33,38,51,62; 8:42; 13:3; 16:28-30; 17:5; 1Co 15:47
even.
1:18; Mt 28:20; Mr 16:19,20; Ac 20:28; Eph 1:23; 4:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

as.
Nu 21:7-9; 2Ki 18:4
even.
8:28; 12:32-34; Ps 22:16; Mt 26:54; Lu 18:31-33; 24:20,26,27,44-46
Ac 2:23; 4:27,28
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,15:

whosoever.
16,36; 1:12; 6:40,47; 11:25,26; 12:44-46; 20:31; Isa 45:22; Mr 16:16
Ac 8:37; 16:30,31; Ro 5:1,2; 10:9-14; Ga 2:16,20; Heb 7:25; 10:39
1Jo 5:1,11-13
not.
5:24; 10:28-30; Mt 18:11; Lu 19:10; Ac 13:41; 1Co 1:18; 2Co 4:3
eternal.
17:2,3; Ro 5:21; 6:22,23; 1Jo 2:25; 5:13,20
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

God.
Lu 2:14; Ro 5:8; 2Co 5:19-21; Tit 3:4; 1Jo 4:9,10,19
gave.
1:14,18; Ge 22:12; Mr 12:6; Ro 5:10; 8:32
that whosoever.
15; Mt 9:13; 1Ti 1:15,16
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

God.
5:45; 8:15,16; 12:47,48; Lu 9:56
but.
1:29; 6:40; Isa 45:21-23; 49:6,7; 53:10-12; Zec 9:9; Mt 1:23; 18:11
Mt 1:23; 18:11; Lu 2:10,11; 19:10; 1Ti 2:5,6; 1Jo 2:2; 4:14
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

is not.
36; 5:24; 6:40,47; 20:31; Ro 5:1; 8:1,34; 1Jo 5:12
he that believeth not.
Mr 16:16; Heb 2:3; 12:25; 1Jo 5:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

this.
1:4,9-11; 8:12; 9:39-41; 15:22-25; Mt 11:20-24; Lu 10:11-16; 12:47
Ro 1:32; 2Co 2:15,16; 2Th 2:12; Heb 3:12,13
because.
5:44; 7:17; 8:44,45; 10:26,27; 12:43; Isa 30:9-12; Lu 16:14
Ac 24:21-26; Ro 2:8; 1Pe 2:8; 2Pe 3:3
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,20:

every.
7:7; 1Ki 22:8; Job 24:13-17; Ps 50:17; Pr 1:29; 4:18; 5:12; 15:12
Am 5:10,11; Lu 11:45; Jas 1:23-25
reproved. or, discovered.
Eph 5:12,13
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

he that.
1:47; 5:39; Ps 1:1-3; 119:80,105; 139:23,24; Isa 8:20; Ac 17:11,12
1Jo 1:6
that his.
15:4,5; Isa 26:12; Ho 14:8; 1Co 15:10; 2Co 1:12; Ga 5:22,23; 6:8
Eph 5:9; Php 1:11; 2:13; Col 1:29; Heb 13:21; 1Pe 1:22; 2Pe 1:5-10
1Jo 2:27-29; 4:12,13,15,16; Re 3:1,2,15
they are.
3Jo 1:11
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

these.
2:13; 4:3; 7:3
and baptized.
26; 4:1,2
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

near.
Ge 33:18
Shalem.
1Sa 9:4
Shalim.
much.
Jer 51:13; Eze 19:10; 43:2; Re 1:15; 14:2; 19:6
and they.
Mt 3:5,6; Mr 1:4,5; Lu 3:7
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

Mt 4:12; 14:3; Mr 6:17; Lu 3:19,20; 9:7-9
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

about.
2:6; Mt 3:11; Mr 7:2-5,8; Heb 6:2; 9:10,13,14,23; 1Pe 3:21
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

he that.
Nu 11:26-29; Ec 4:4; 1Co 3:3-5; Ga 5:20,21; 6:12,13; Jas 3:14-18
Jas 4:5,6
to whom.
1:7,15,26-36
and all.
1:7,9; 11:48; 12:19; Ps 65:2; Isa 45:23; Ac 19:26,27
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

A man.
Nu 16:9-11; 17:5; 1Ch 28:4,5; Jer 1:5; 17:16; Am 7:15; Mt 25:15
Mr 13:34; Ro 1:5; 12:6; 1Co 1:1; 2:12-14; 3:5; 4:7; 12:11; 15:10
Ga 1:1; Eph 1:1; 3:7,8; 1Ti 2:7; Jas 1:17; 1Pe 4:10,11
receive. or, take unto himself.
Heb 5:4,5
from.
Mt 21:25; Mr 11:30,31
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,28:

I said.
1:20,25,27
but.
1:23; Mal 3:1; 4:4,5; Mt 3:3,11,12; Mr 1:2,3; Lu 1:16,17,76; 3:4-6
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,29:

hath.
Ps 45:9-17; So 3:11; 4:8-12; Isa 54:5; 62:4,5; Jer 2:2; Eze 16:8
Ho 2:19; Mt 22:2; 2Co 11:2; Eph 5:25-27; Re 19:7-9; 21:9
the friend.
Jud 14:10,11; Ps 45:14; So 5:1; Mt 9:15
this.
Isa 66:11; Lu 2:10-14; 15:6
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,30:

must increase.
Ps 72:17-19; Isa 9:7; 53:2,3,12; Da 2:34,35,44,45; Mt 13:31-33
Re 11:15
but.
Ac 13:36,37; 1Co 3:5; 2Co 3:7-11; Col 1:18; Heb 3:2-6
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

that cometh.
13; 6:33; 8:23; Eph 1:20,21; 4:8-10
is above.
1:15,27,30; 5:21-25; Mt 28:18; Ac 10:36; Ro 9:5; Eph 1:21
Php 2:9-11; 1Pe 3:22; Re 19:16
he that is.
12; 1Co 15:47,48; Heb 9:1,9,10
he that cometh.
6:33,51; 16:27,28
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,32:

what.
11; 5:20; 8:26; 15:15
and no.
26,33; 1:11; Isa 50:2; 53:1; Ro 10:16-21; 11:2-6
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

hath set.
Ro 3:3,4; 4:18-21; 2Co 1:18; Tit 1:1,2; Heb 6:17; 1Jo 5:9,10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

he.
7:16; 8:26-28,40,47
for God.
17; 1:16; 5:26; 7:37-39; 15:26; 16:7; Nu 11:25; 2Ki 2:9; Ps 45:7
Isa 11:2-5; 59:21; 62:1-3; Ro 8:2; Eph 3:8; 4:7-13; Col 1:19; 2:9
Re 21:6; 22:1,16,17
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

Father.
5:20,22; 15:9; 17:23,26; Pr 8:30; Isa 42:1; Mt 3:17; 17:5
and.
13:3; 17:2; Ge 41:44,55; Ps 2:8; Isa 9:6,7; Mt 11:27; 28:18; Lu 10:22
1Co 15:27; Eph 1:22; Php 2:9-11; Heb 1:2; 2:8,9; 1Pe 3:22
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

that believeth on.
15,16; 1:12; 5:24; 6:47-54; 10:28; Hab 2:4; Ro 1:17; 8:1; 1Jo 3:14,15
1Jo 5:10-13
see.
3; 8:51; Nu 32:11; Job 33:28; Ps 36:9; 49:19; 106:4,5; Lu 2:30; 3:6
Ro 8:24,25; Re 21:8
but.
Ps 2:12; Ro 1:18; 4:15; 5:9; Ga 3:10; Eph 5:6; 1Th 1:10; 5:9; Heb 2:3
Heb 10:29; Re 6:16,17
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:
A ruler - One of the great council.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:
The same came - Through desire; but by night - Through shame: We know - Even we rulers and Pharisees.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:
Jesus answered - That knowledge will not avail thee unless thou be born again - Otherwise thou canst not see, that is, experience and enjoy, either the inward or the glorious kingdom of God. In this solemn discourse our Lord shows, that no external profession, no ceremonial ordinances or privileges of birth, could entitle any to the blessings of the Messiah's kingdom: that an entire change of heart as well as of life was necessary for that purpose: that this could only be wrought in man by the almighty power of God: that every man born into the world was by nature in a state of sin, condemnation, and misery: that the free mercy of God had given his Son to deliver them from it, and to raise them to a blessed immortality: that all mankind, Gentiles as well as Jews, might share in these benefits, procured by his being lifted up on the cross, and to be received by faith in him: but that if they rejected him, their eternal, aggravated condemnation, would be the certain consequence. Except a man be born again - If our Lord by being born again means only reformation of life, instead of making any new discovery, he has only thrown a great deal of obscurity on what was before plain and obvious.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:
When he is old - As Nicodemus himself was.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:
Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit - Except he experience that great inward change by the Spirit, and be baptized (wherever baptism can be had) as the outward sign and means of it.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:
That which is born of the flesh is flesh - Mere flesh, void of the Spirit, yea, at enmity with it; And that which is born of the Spirit is spirit - Is spiritual, heavenly, divine, like its Author.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:
Ye must be born again - To be born again, is to be inwardly changed from all sinfulness to all holiness. It is fitly so called, because as great a change then passes on the soul as passes on the body when it is born into the world.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:
The wind bloweth - According to its own nature, not thy will, and thou hearest the sound thereof - Thou art sure it doth blow, but canst not explain the particular manner of its acting. So is every one that is born of the Spirit - The fact is plain, the manner of his operations inexplicable.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:
We speak what we know - I and all that believe in me.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:
Earthly things - Things done on earth; such as the new birth, and the present privileges of the children of God. Heavenly things - Such as the eternity of the Son, and the unity of the Father, Son, and Spirit.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:
For no one - For here you must rely on my single testimony, whereas there you have a cloud of witnesses: Hath gone up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven. Who is in heaven - Therefore he is omnipresent; else he could not be in heaven and on earth at once. This is a plain instance of what is usually termed the communication of properties between the Divine and human nature; whereby what is proper to the Divine nature is spoken concerning the human, and what is proper to the human is, as here, spoken of the Divine.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:
And as Moses - And even this single witness will soon be taken from you; yea, and in a most ignominious manner. Num 21:8,9.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,15:
That whosoever - He must be lifted up, that hereby he may purchase salvation for all believers: all those who look to him by faith recover spiritual health, even as all that looked at that serpent recovered bodily health.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:
Yea, and this was the very design of God's love in sending him into the world. Whosoever believeth on him - With that faith which worketh by love, and hold fast the beginning of his confidence steadfast to the end. God so loved the world - That is, all men under heaven; even those that despise his love, and will for that cause finally perish. Otherwise not to believe would be no sin to them. For what should they believe? Ought they to believe that Christ was given for them? Then he was given for them. He gave his only Son - Truly and seriously. And the Son of God gave himself, Gal 4:4, truly and seriously.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:
God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world - Although many accuse him of it.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:
He that believeth on him is not condemned - Is acquitted, is justified before God. The name of the only - begotten Son of God - The name of a person is often put for the person himself. But perhaps it is farther intimated in that expression, that the person spoken of is great and magnificent. And therefore it is generally used to express either God the Father or the Son.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:
This is the condemnation - That is, the cause of it. So God is clear.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:
He that practiseth the truth (that is, true religion) cometh to the light - So even Nicodemus, afterward did. Are wrought in God - That is, in the light, power, and love of God.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:
Jesus went - From the capital city, Jerusalem, into the land of Judea - That is, into the country. There he baptized - Not himself; but his disciples by his order, John 4:2.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:
John also was baptizing - He did not repel them that offered, but he more willingly referred them to Jesus.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:
The Jews - Those men of Judea, who now went to be baptized by Jesus; and John's disciples, who were mostly of Galilee: about purifying - That is, baptism. They disputed, which they should be baptized by.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:
A man can receive nothing - Neither he nor I. Neither could he do this, unless God had sent him: nor can I receive the title of Christ, or any honour comparable to that which he hath received from heaven. They seem to have spoken with jealousy and resentment; John answers with sweet composure of spirit.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,29:
He that hath the bride is the bridegroom - He whom the bride follows. But all men now come to Jesus. Hence it is plain he is the bridegroom. The friend who heareth him - Talk with the bride; rejoiceth greatly - So far from envying or resenting it.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,30:
He must increase, but I must decrease - So they who are now, like John, burning and shining lights, must (if not suddenly eclipsed) like him gradually decrease, while others are increasing about them; as they in their turns grew up, amidst the decays of the former generation. Let us know how to set, as well as how to rise; and let it comfort our declining days to trace, in those who are likely to succeed us in our work, the openings of yet greater usefulness.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:
It is not improbable, that what is added, to the end of the chapter, are the words of the evangelist, not the Baptist. He that is of the earth - A mere man; of earthly original, has a spirit and speech answerable to it.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,32:
No man - None comparatively, exceeding few; receiveth his testimony - With true faith.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:
Hath set to his seal - It was customary among the Jews for the witness to set his seal to the testimony he had given. That God is true - Whose words the Messiah speaks.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:
God giveth not him the Spirit by measure - As he did to the prophets, but immeasurably. Hence he speaketh the words of God in the most perfect manner.
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:
He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life - He hath it already. For he loves God. And love is the essence of heaven. He that obeyeth not - A consequence of not believing.
MHC

Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

     1, 2. Nicodemus—In this member of the Sanhedrim sincerity and timidity are seen struggling together.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

     2. came to Jesus by night—One of those superficial "believers" mentioned in Joh 2:23, 24, yet inwardly craving further satisfaction, Nicodemus comes to Jesus in quest of it, but comes "by night" (see Joh 19:38, 39; 12:42); he avows his conviction that He was
      come from Godan expression never applied to a merely human messenger, and probably meaning more here—but only as "a teacher," and in His miracles he sees a proof merely that "God is with Him." Thus, while unable to repress his convictions, he is afraid of committing himself too far.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

     3. Except, &c.—This blunt and curt reply was plainly meant to shake the whole edifice of the man's religion, in order to lay a deeper and more enduring foundation. Nicodemus probably thought he had gone a long way, and expected, perhaps, to be complimented on his candor. Instead of this, he is virtually told that he has raised a question which he is not in a capacity to solve, and that before approaching it, his spiritual vision required to be rectified by an entire revolution on his inner man. Had the man been less sincere, this would certainly have repelled him; but with persons in his mixed state of mind—to which Jesus was no stranger (Joh 2:25) —such methods speed better than more honeyed words and gradual approaches.
      a man—not a Jew merely; the necessity is a universal one.
      be born again—or, as it were, begin life anew in relation to God; his manner of thinking, feeling, and acting, with reference to spiritual things, undergoing a fundamental and permanent revolution.
      cannot see—can have no part in (just as one is said to "see life," "see death," &c.).
      the kingdom of God—whether in its beginnings here (Lu 16:16), or its consummation hereafter (Mt 25:34; Eph 5:5).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

     4. How, &c.—The figure of the new birth, if it had been meant only of Gentile proselytes to the Jewish religion, would have been intelligible enough to Nicodemus, being quite in keeping with the language of that day; but that Jews themselves should need a new birth was to him incomprehensible.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

     5. of water and of the Spirit—A twofold explanation of the "new birth," so startling to Nicodemus. To a Jewish ecclesiastic, so familiar with the symbolical application of water, in every variety of way and form of expression, this language was fitted to show that the thing intended was no other than a thorough spiritual purification by the operation of the Holy Ghost. Indeed, element of water and operation of the Spirit are brought together in a glorious evangelical prediction of Ezekiel (Eze 36:25-27), which Nicodemus might have been reminded of had such spiritualities not been almost lost in the reigning formalism. Already had the symbol of water been embodied in an initiatory ordinance, in the baptism of the Jewish expectants of Messiah by the Baptist, not to speak of the baptism of Gentile proselytes before that; and in the Christian Church it was soon to become the great visible door of entrance into "the kingdom of God," the reality being the sole work of the Holy Ghost (Tit 3:5).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

     6-8. That which is born, &c.—A great universal proposition; "That which is begotten carries within itself the nature of that which begat it" [OLSHAUSEN].
      flesh—Not the mere material body, but all that comes into the world by birth, the entire man; yet not humanity simply, but in its corrupted, depraved condition, in complete subjection to the law of the fall (Ro 8:1-9). So that though a man "could enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born," he would be no nearer this "new birth" than before (Job 14:4; Ps 51:5).
      is spirit—"partakes of and possesses His spiritual nature."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

     7. Marvel not, &c.—If a spiritual nature only can see and enter the kingdom of God; if all we bring into the world with us be the reverse of spiritual; and if this spirituality be solely of the Holy Ghost, no wonder a new birth is indispensable.
      Ye must—"Ye, says Jesus, not we" [BENGEL]. After those universal propositions, about what "a man" must be, to "enter the kingdom of God" (Joh 3:5) —this is remarkable, showing that our Lord meant to hold Himself forth as "separate from sinners."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

     8. The wind, &c.—Breath and spirit (one word both in Hebrew and Greek) are constantly brought together in Scripture as analogous (Job 27:3; 33:4; Eze 37:9-14).
      canst not tell, &c.—The laws which govern the motion of the winds are even yet but partially discovered; but the risings, failings, and change in direction many times in a day, of those gentle breezes here referred to, will probably ever be a mystery to us: So of the operation of the Holy Ghost in the new birth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

     9, 10. How, &c.—Though the subject still confounds Nicodemus, the necessity and possibility of the new birth is no longer the point with him, but the nature of it and how it is brought about [LUTHARDT]. "From this moment Nicodemus says nothing more, but has sunk unto a disciple who has found his true teacher. Therefore the Saviour now graciously advances in His communications of truth, and once more solemnly brings to the mind of this teacher in Israel, now become a learner, his own not guiltless ignorance, that He may then proceed to utter, out of the fulness of His divine knowledge, such farther testimonies both of earthly and heavenly things as his docile scholar may to his own profit receive" [STIER].


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

     10. master—"teacher." The question clearly implies that the doctrine of regeneration is so far disclosed in the Old Testament that Nicodemus was culpable in being ignorant of it. Nor is it merely as something that should be experienced under the Gospel that the Old Testament holds it forth—as many distinguished critics allege, denying that there was any such thing as regeneration before Christ. For our Lord's proposition is universal, that no fallen man is or can be spiritual without a regenerating operation of the Holy Ghost, and the necessity of a spiritual obedience under whatever name, in opposition to mere mechanical services, is proclaimed throughout all the Old Testament.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

     11-13. We speak that we know, and . . . have seen—that is, by absolute knowledge and immediate vision of God, which "the only-begotten Son in the bosom of the Father" claims as exclusively His own (Joh 1:18). The "we" and "our" are here used, though Himself only is intended, in emphatic contrast, probably, with the opening words of Nicodemus, "Rabbi, we know.", &c.
      ye receive not, &c.—referring to the class to which Nicodemus belonged, but from which he was beginning to be separated in spirit.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

     12. earthly things—such as regeneration, the gate of entrance to the kingdom of God on earth, and which Nicodemus should have understood better, as a truth even of that more earthly economy to which he belonged.
      heavenly things—the things of the new and more heavenly evangelical economy, only to be fully understood after the effusion of the Spirit from heaven through the exalted Saviour.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

     13. no man hath ascended, &c.—There is something paradoxical in this language—"No one has gone up but He that came down, even He who is at once both up and down." Doubtless it was intended to startle and constrain His auditor to think that there must be mysterious elements in His Person. The old Socinians, to subvert the doctrine of the pre-existence of Christ, seized upon this passage as teaching that the man Jesus was secretly caught up to heaven to receive His instructions, and then "came down from heaven" to deliver them. But the sense manifestly is this: "The perfect knowledge of God is not obtained by any man's going up from earth to heaven to receive it—no man hath so ascended—but He whose proper habitation, in His essential and eternal nature, is heaven, hath, by taking human flesh, descended as the Son of man to disclose the Father, whom He knows by immediate gaze alike in the flesh as before He assumed it, being essentially and unchangeably 'in the bosom of the Father'" (Joh 1:18).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

     14-16. And as Moses, &c.—Here now we have the "heavenly things," as before the "earthly," but under a veil, for the reason mentioned in Joh 3:12. The crucifixion of Messiah is twice after this veiled under the same lively term—"uplifting," Joh 8:28; 12:32, 33. Here it is still further veiled—though to us who know what it means, rendered vastly more instructive—by reference to the brazen serpent. The venom of the fiery serpents, shooting through the veins of the rebellious Israelites, was spreading death through the camp—lively emblem of the perishing condition of men by reason of sin. In both cases the remedy was divinely provided. In both the way of cure strikingly resembled that of the disease. Stung by serpents, by a serpent they are healed. By "fiery serpents" bitten—serpents, probably, with skin spotted fiery red [KURTZ]—the instrument of cure is a serpent of brass or copper, having at a distance the same appearance. So in redemption, as by man came death, by Man also comes life—Man, too, "in the likeness of sinful flesh" (Ro 8:3), differing in nothing outward and apparent from those who, pervaded by the poison of the serpent, were ready to perish. But as the uplifted serpent had none of the venom of which the serpent-bitten people were dying, so while the whole human family were perishing of the deadly wound inflicted on it by the old serpent, "the Second Man," who arose over humanity with healing in His wings, was without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing. In both cases the remedy is conspicuously displayed; in the one case on a pole, in the other on the cross, to "draw all men unto Him" (Joh 12:32). In both cases it is by directing the eye to the uplifted Remedy that the cure is effected; in the one case the bodily eye, in the other the gaze of the soul by "believing in Him," as in that glorious ancient proclamation—"Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth," &c. (Isa 45:22). Both methods are stumbling to human reason. What, to any thinking Israelite, could seem more unlikely than that a deadly poison should be dried up in his body by simply looking on a reptile of brass? Such a stumbling-block to the Jews and to the Greeks foolishness was faith in the crucified Nazarene as a way of deliverance from eternal perdition. Yet was the warrant in both cases to expect a cure equally rational and well grounded. As the serpent was God's ordinance for the cure of every bitten Israelite, so is Christ for the salvation of every perishing sinner—the one however a purely arbitrary ordinance, the other divinely adapted to man's complicated maladies. In both cases the efficacy is the same. As one simple look at the serpent, however distant and however weak, brought an instantaneous cure, even so, real faith in the Lord Jesus, however tremulous, however distant—be it but real faith—brings certain and instant healing to the perishing soul. In a word, the consequences of disobedience are the same in both. Doubtless many bitten Israelites, galling as their case was, would reason rather than obey, would speculate on the absurdity of expecting the bite of a living serpent to be cured by looking at a piece of dead metal in the shape of one—speculate thus till they died. Alas! is not salvation by a crucified Redeemer subjected to like treatment? Has the offense of the cross" yet ceased? (Compare 2Ki 5:12).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

     16. For God so loved, &c.—What proclamation of the Gospel has been so oft on the lips of missionaries and preachers in every age since it was first uttered? What has sent such thrilling sensations through millions of mankind? What has been honored to bring such multitudes to the feet of Christ? What to kindle in the cold and selfish breasts of mortals the fires of self-sacrificing love to mankind, as these words of transparent simplicity, yet overpowering majesty? The picture embraces several distinct compartments: "THE WORLD"—in its widest sense—ready "to perish"; the immense "LOVE OF GOD" to that perishing world, measurable only, and conceivable only, by the gift which it drew forth from Him; THE GIFT itself—"He so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son," or, in the language of Paul, "spared not His own Son" (Ro 8:32), or in that addressed to Abraham when ready to offer Isaac on the altar, "withheld not His Son, His only Son, whom He loved" (Ge 22:16); the FRUIT of this stupendous gift—not only deliverance from impending "perdition," but the bestowal of everlasting life; the MODE in which all takes effect—by "believing" on the Son. How would Nicodemus' narrow Judaism become invisible in the blaze of this Sun of righteousness seen rising on "the world" with healing in His wings! (Mal 4:2).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

     17-21. not to condemn, &c.—A statement of vast importance. Though "condemnation" is to many the issue of Christ's mission (Joh 3:19), it is not the object of His mission, which is purely a saving one.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

     18. is not condemned—Having, immediately on his believing, "passed from death unto life" (Joh 5:24).
      condemned already—Rejecting the one way of deliverance from that "condemnation" which God gave His Son to remove, and so wilfully remaining condemned.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

     19. this is the condemnation, &c.—emphatically so, revealing the condemnation already existing, and sealing up under it those who will not be delivered from it.
      light is come into the world—in the Person of Him to whom Nicodemus was listening.
      loved darkness, &c.—This can only be known by the deliberate rejection of Christ, but that does fearfully reveal it.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,20:

     20. reproved—by detection.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

     21. doeth truth—whose only object in life is to be and do what will bear the light. Therefore he loves and "comes to the light," that all he is and does, being thus thoroughly tested, may be seen to have nothing in it but what is divinely wrought and divinely approved. This is the "Israelite, indeed, in whom is no guile."

     Joh 3:22-36. JESUS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF THE BAPTIST—HIS NOBLE TESTIMONY TO HIS MASTER.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

     22-24. land of Judea—the rural parts of that province, the foregoing conversation being held in the capital.
      baptized—in the sense explained in Joh 4:2.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

     23. Ænon . . . Salim—on the west of Jordan. (Compare Joh 3:26 with Joh 1:28).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

     24. John not yet cast into prison—Hence it is plain that our Lord's ministry did not commence with the imprisonment of John, though, but for this, we should have drawn that inference from Mt 4:12 and Mark's (Mr 1:14) express statement.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

     25, 26. between some of—rather, "on the part of."
      and the Jews—rather (according to the best manuscripts), "and a Jew,"
      about purifying—that is, baptizing, the symbolical meaning of washing with water being put (as in Joh 2:6) for the act itself. As John and Jesus were the only teachers who baptized Jews, discussions might easily arise between the Baptist's disciples and such Jews as declined to submit to that rite.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

     26. Rabbi, &c.—"Master, this man tells us that He to whom thou barest such generous witness beyond Jordan is requiting thy generosity by drawing all the people away to Himself. At this rate, thou shalt soon have no disciples at all." The reply to this is one of the noblest and most affecting utterances that ever came from the lips of man.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

     27-30. A man, &c.—"I do my heaven-prescribed work, and that is enough for me. Would you have me mount into my Master's place? Said I not unto you, I am not the Christ? The Bride is not mine, why should the people stay with me?? Mine it is to point the burdened to the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world, to tell them there is Balm in Gilead, and a Physician there. And shall I grudge to see them, in obedience to the call, flying as a cloud, and as doves to their windows? Whose is the Bride but the Bridegroom's? Enough for me to be the Bridegroom's friend, sent by Him to negotiate the match, privileged to bring together the Saviour and those He is come to seek and to save, and rejoicing with joy unspeakable if I may but 'stand and hear the Bridegroom's voice,' witnessing the blessed espousals. Say ye, then, they go from me to Him? Ye bring me glad tidings of great joy. He must increase, but I must decrease; this, my joy, therefore is fulfilled."
      A man can receive, &c.—assume nothing, that is, lawfully and with any success; that is, Every man has his work and sphere appointed him from above, Even Christ Himself came under this law (Heb 5:4).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

     31-34. He that, &c.—Here is the reason why He must increase while all human teachers must decrease. The Master "cometh from above"—descending from His proper element, the region of those "heavenly things" which He came to reveal, and so, although mingling with men and things on the earth, is not "of the earth," either in Person or Word. The servants, on the contrary, springing of earth, are of the earth, and their testimony, even though divine in authority, partakes necessarily of their own earthiness. (So strongly did the Baptist feel this contrast that the last clause just repeats the first). It is impossible for a sharper line of distinction to be drawn between Christ and all human teachers, even when divinely commissioned and speaking by the power of the Holy Ghost. And who does not perceive it? The words of prophets and apostles are undeniable and most precious truth; but in the words of Christ we hear a voice as from the excellent Glory, the Eternal Word making Himself heard in our own flesh.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,32:

     32. what he hath seen and heard—(See on Joh 3:11 and Joh 1:18).
      and no man receiveth, &c.—John's disciples had said, "All come to Him" (Joh 3:26). The Baptist here virtually says, Would it were so, but alas! they are next to "none" [BENGEL]. They were far readier to receive himself, and obliged him to say, I am not the Christ, and he seems pained at this.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

     33. hath set to His seal, &c.—gives glory to God whose words Christ speaks, not as prophets and apostles by a partial communication of the Spirit to them.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

     34. for God giveth not the Spirit by measure—Here, again, the sharpest conceivable line of distinction is drawn between Christ and all human-inspired teachers: "They have the Spirit in a limited degree; but God giveth not [to Him] the Spirit by measure." It means the entire fulness of divine life and divine power. The present tense "giveth," very aptly points out the permanent communication of the Spirit by the Father to the Son, so that a constant flow and reflow of living power is to be understood (Compare Joh 1:15) [OLSHAUSEN].


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

     35, 36. The Father loveth, &c.—See on Mt 11:27, where we have the "delivering over of all things into the hands of the Son," while here we have the deep spring of that august act in the Father's ineffable "love of the Son."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

     36. hath everlasting life—already has it. (See on Joh 3:18 and Joh 5:24).
      shall not see life—The contrast here is striking: The one has already a life that will endure for ever—the other not only has it not now, but shall never have it—never see it.
      abideth on him—It was on Him before, and not being removed in the only possible way, by "believing on the Son," it necessarily remaineth on him! Note.—How flatly does this contradict the teaching of many in our day, that there neither was, nor is, anything in God against sinners which needed to be removed by Christ, but only in men against God!


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:
Christ's Interview with Nicodemus.

      1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:   2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.   3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.   4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?   5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.   6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.   7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.   8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.   9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?   10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things?   11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.   12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?   13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.   14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:   15 That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.   16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not peri
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

John's Testimony to Christ.

      22 After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judæa; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.   23 And John also was baptizing in Ænon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.   24 For John was not yet cast into prison.   25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews about purifying.   26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him.   27 John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.   28 Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.   29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.   30 He must increase, but I must decrease.   31 He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.   32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.   33 He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God is true.   34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.   35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.   36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.

      In these verses we have,

      I. Christ's removal into the land of Judea (v. 22), and there he tarried with his disciples. Observe, 1. Our Lord Jesus, after he entered upon his public work, travelled much, and removed often, as the patriarchs in their sojournings. As it was a good part of his humiliation that he had no certain dwelling-place, but was, as Paul, in journeyings often, so it was an instance of his unwearied industry, in the work for which he came into the world, that he went about in prosecution of it; many a weary step he took to do good to souls. The Sun of righteousness took a large circuit to diffuse his light and heat, Ps. xix. 6. 2. He was not wont to stay long at Jerusalem. Though he went frequently thither, yet he soon returned into the country; as here. After these things, after he had had this discourse with Nicodemus, he came into the land of Judea; not so much for greater privacy (though mean and obscure places best suited the humble Jesus in his humble state) as for greater usefulness. His preaching and miracles, perhaps, made most noise at Jerusalem, the fountain-head of news, but did least good there, where the most considerable men of the Jewish church had so much the ascendant. 3. When he came into the land of Judea his disciples came with him; for these were they that continued with him in his temptations. Many that flocked to him at Jerusalem could not follow his motions into the country, they had no business there; but his disciples attended him. If the ark remove, it is better to remove and go after it (as those did, Josh. iii. 3) than sit still without it, though it be in Jerusalem itself. 4. There he tarried with them, dietribe--He conversed with them, discoursed with them. He did not retire into the country for his ease and pleasure, but for more free conversation with his disciples and followers. See Cant. vii. 11, 12. Note, Those that are ready to go with Christ shall find him as ready to stay with them. It is supposed that he now staid five or six months in this country. 5. There he baptized; he admitted disciples, such as believed in him, and had more honesty and courage than those had at Jerusalem, ch. ii. 24. John began to baptize in the land of Judea (Matt. iii. 1), therefore Christ began there, for John had said, There comes one after me. He himself baptized not, with his own hand, but his disciples by his orders and directions, as appears, ch. iv. 2. But his disciples' baptizing was his baptizing. Holy ordinances are Christ's, though administered by weak men.

      II. John's continuance in his work, as long as his opportunities lasted, v. 23, 24. Here we are told,

      1. That John was baptizing. Christ's baptism was, for substance, the same with John's, for John bore witness to Christ, and therefore they did not at all clash or interfere with one another. But, (1.) Christ began the work of preaching and baptizing before John laid it down, that he might be ready to receive John's disciples when he should be taken off, and so the wheels might be kept going. It is a comfort to useful men, when they are going off the stage, to see those rising up who are likely to fill up their place. (2.) John continued the work of preaching and baptizing though Christ had taken it up; for he would still, according to the measure given to him, advance the interests of God's kingdom. There was still work for John to do, for Christ was not yet generally known, nor were the minds of people thoroughly prepared for him by repentance. From heaven John had received his command, and he would go on in his work till he thence received his countermand, and would have his dismission from the same hand that gave him his commission. He does not come in to Christ, lest what had formerly passed should look like a combination between them; but he goes on with his work, till Providence lays him aside. The greater gifts of some do not render the labours of others, that come short of them, needless and useless; there is work enough for all hands. They are sullen that will sit down and do nothing when they see themselves out-shone. Though we have but one talent, we must account for that: and, when we see ourselves going off, must yet go on to the last.

      2. That he baptized in Enon near Salim, places we find nowhere else mentioned, and therefore the learned are altogether at a loss where to find them. Wherever it was, it seems that John removed from place to place; he did not think that there was any virtue in Jordan, because Jesus was baptized there, which should engage him to stay there, but as he saw cause he removed to other waters. Ministers must follow their opportunities. He chose a place where there was much water, hydata polla--many waters, that is, many streams of water; so that wherever he met with any that were willing to submit to his baptism water was at hand to baptize them with, shallow perhaps, as is usual where there are many brooks, but such as would serve his purpose. And in that country plenty of water was a valuable thing.

      3. That thither people came to him and were baptized. Though they did not come in such vast crowds as they did when he first appeared, yet now he was not without encouragement, but there were still those that attended and owned him. Some refer this both to John and to Jesus: They came and were baptized; that is, some came to John, and were baptized by him, some to Jesus, and were baptized by him, and, as their baptism was one, so were their hearts.

      4. It is noted (v. 24) that John was not yet cast into prison, to clear the order of the story, and to show that these passages are to come in before Matt. vi. 12. John never desisted from his work as long as he had his liberty; nay, he seems to have been the more industrious, because he foresaw his time was short; he was not yet cast into prison, but he expected it ere long, ch. ix. 4.

      III. A contest between John's disciples and the Jews about purifying, v. 25. See how the gospel of Christ came not to send peace upon earth, but division. Observe, 1. Who were the disputants: some of John's disciples, and the Jews who had not submitted to his baptism of repentance. Penitents and impenitents divide this sinful world. In this contest, it should seem, John's disciples were the aggressors, and gave the challenge; and it is a sign that they were novices, who had more zeal than discretion. The truths of God have often suffered by the rashness of those that have undertaken to defend them before they were able to do it. 2. What was the matter in dispute: about purifying, about religious washing. (1.) We may suppose that John's disciples cried up his baptism, his purifying, as instar omnium--superior to all others, and gave the preference to that as perfecting and superseding all the purifications of the Jews, and they were in the right; but young converts are too apt to boast of their attainments, whereas he that finds the treasure should hide it till he is sure that he has it, and not talk of it too much at first. (2.) No doubt the Jews with as much assurance applauded the purifyings that were in use among them, both those that were instituted by the law of Moses and those that were imposed by the tradition of the elders; for the former they had a divine warrant, and for the latter the usage of the church. Now it is very likely that the Jews in this dispute, when they could not deny the excellent nature and design of John's baptism, raised an objection against it from Christ's baptism, which gave occasion for the complaint that follows here (v. 26): "Here is John baptizing in one place." say they, "and Jesus at the same time baptizing in another place; and therefore John's baptism, which his disciples so much applaud, is either," [1.] "Dangerous, and of ill consequence to the peace of the church and state, for you see it opens a door to endless parties. Now that John has begun, we shall have every little teacher set up for a baptist presently. Or," [2.] "At the best it is defective and imperfect. If John's baptism, which you cry up thus, have any good in it, yonder the baptism of Jesus goes beyond it, so that for your parts you are shaded already by a greater light, and your baptism is soon gone out of request." Thus objections are made against the gospel from the advancement and improvement of gospel light, as if childhood and manhood were contrary to each other, and the superstructure were against the foundation. There was no reason to object Christ's baptism against John's, for they consisted very well together.

      IV. A complaint which John's disciples made to their master concerning Christ and his baptizing, v. 26. They, being nonplussed by the fore-mentioned objection, and probably ruffled and put into a heat by it, come to their master, and tell him, "Rabbi, he that was with thee, and was baptized of thee, is now set up for himself; he baptizeth, and all men come to him; and wilt thou suffer it?" Their itch for disputing occasioned this. It is common for men, when they find themselves run aground in the heat of disputation, to fall foul upon those that do them no harm. If these disciples of John had not undertaken to dispute about purifying, before they understood the doctrine of baptism, they might have answered the objection without being put into a passion. In their complaint, they speak respectfully to their own master, Rabbit; but speak very slightly of our Saviour, though they do not name him. 1. They suggest that Christ's setting up a baptism of his own was a piece of presumption, very unaccountable; as if John, having first set up this rite of baptizing, must have the monopoly of it, and, as it were, a patent for the invention: "He that was with thee beyond Jordan, as a disciple of thine, behold, and wonder, the same, the very same, baptizes, and takes thy work out of thy hand." Thus the voluntary condescensions of the Lord Jesus, as that of his being baptized by John, are often unjustly and very unkindly turned to his reproach. 2. They suggest that it was a piece of ingratitude to John. He to whom thou barest witness baptizes; as if Jesus owed all his reputation to the honourable character John gave of him, and yet had very unworthily improved it to the prejudice of John. But Christ needed not John's testimony, ch. v. 36. He reflected more honour upon John than he received from him, yet thus it is incident to us to think that others are more indebted to us than really they are. And besides, Christ's baptism was not in the least an impeachment, but indeed the greatest improvement, of John's baptism, which was but to lead the way to Christ's. John was just to Christ, in bearing witness to him; and Christ's answering his testimony did rather enrich than impoverish John's ministry. 3. They conclude that it would be a total eclipse to John's baptism: "All men come to him; they that used to follow with us now flock after him, it is therefore time for us to look about us." It was not indeed strange that all men came to him. As far as Christ is manifested he will be magnified; but why should John's disciples grieve at this? Note, Aiming at the monopoly of honour and respect has been in all ages the bane of the church, and the shame of its members and ministers; as also a vying of interests, and a jealousy of rivalship and competition. We mistake if we think that the excelling gifts and graces, and labours and usefulness, of one, are a diminution and disparagement to another that has obtained mercy to be faithful; for the Spirit is a free agent, dispensing to every one severally as he will. Paul rejoiced in the usefulness even of those that opposed him, Phil. i. 18. We must leave it to God to choose, employ, and honour his own instruments as he pleaseth, and not covet to be placed alone.

      V. Here is John's answer to this complaint which his disciples made, v. 27, &c. His disciples expected that he would have resented this matter as they did; but Christ's manifestation to Israel was no surprise to John, but what he looked for; it was not disturbance to him, but what he wished for. He therefore checked the complaint, as Moses, Enviest thou for my sake? and took this occasion to confirm the testimonies he had formerly borne to Christ as superior to him, cheerfully consigning and turning over to him all the interest he had in Israel. In this discourse here, the first minister of the gospel (for so John was) is an excellent pattern to all ministers to humble themselves and to exalt the Lord Jesus.

      1. John here abases himself in comparison with Christ, v. 27-30. The more others magnify us, the more we must humble ourselves, and fortify ourselves against the temptation of flattery and applause, and the jealousy of our friends for our honour, by remembering our place, and what we are, 1 Cor. iii. 5.

      (1.) John acquiesces in the divine disposal, and satisfies himself with that (v. 27): A man can receive nothing except it be given him from heaven, whence every good gift comes (James i. 17), a general truth very applicable in this case. Different employments are according to the direction of divine Providence, different endowments according to the distribution of the divine grace. No man can take any true honour to himself, Heb. v. 4. We have as necessary and constant a dependence upon the grace of God in all the motions and actions of the spiritual life as we have upon the providence of God in all the motions and actions of the natural life: now this comes in here as a reason, [1.] Why we should not envy those that have a larger share of gifts than we have, or move in a larger sphere of usefulness. John reminds his disciples that Jesus would not have thus excelled him except he had received it from heaven, for, as man and Mediator, he received gifts; and, if God gave him the Spirit without measure (v. 34), shall they grudge at it? The same reason will hold as to others. If God is pleased to give to others more ability and success than to us, shall we be displeased at it, and reflect upon him as unjust, unwise, and partial? See Matt. xx. 15. [2.] Why we should not be discontented, though we be inferior to others in gifts and usefulness, and be eclipsed by their excellencies. John was ready to own that it was the gift, the free gift, of heaven, that made him a preacher, a prophet, a baptist: it was God that gave him the interest he had in the love and esteem of the people; and, if now his interest decline, God's will be done! He that gives may take. What we receive from heaven we must take as it is given. Now John never received a commission for a standing perpetual office, but only for a temporary one, which must soon expire; and therefore, when he has fulfilled his ministry, he can contentedly see it go out of date. Some give quite another sense of these words: John had taken pains with his disciples, to teach them the reference which his baptism had to Christ, who should come after him, and yet be preferred before him, and do that for them which he could not do; and yet, after all, they dote upon John, and grudge this preference of Christ above him: Well saith John, I see a man can receive (that is, perceive) nothing, except it be given him from heaven. The labour of ministers if all lost labour, unless the grace of God make it effectual. Men do not understand that which is made most plain, nor believe that which is made most evident, unless it be given them from heaven to understand and believe it.

      (2.) John appeals to the testimony he had formerly given concerning Christ (v. 28): You can bear me witness that I said, again and again, I am not the Christ, but I am sent before him. See how steady and constant John was in his testimony to Christ, and not as a reed shaken with the wind; neither the frowns of the chief priests, nor the flatteries of his own disciples, could make him change his note. Now this serves here, [1.] As a conviction to his disciples of the unreasonableness of their complaint. They had spoken of the witness which their master bore to Jesus (v. 26): "Now," saith John, "do you not remember what the testimony was that I did bear? Call that to mind, and you will see your own cavil answered. Did I not say, I am not the Christ? Why then do you set me up as a rival with him that is? Did I not say, I am sent before him? Why then does it seem strange to you that I should stand by and give way to him?" [2.] It is a comfort to himself that he had never given his disciples any occasion thus to set him up in competition with Christ; but, on the contrary, had particularly cautioned them against this mistake, though he might have made a hand of it for himself. It is a satisfaction to faithful ministers when they have done what they could in their places to prevent any extravagances that their people ran into. John had not only not encouraged them to hope that he was the Messiah, but had plainly told them the contrary, which was now a satisfaction to him. It is a common excuse for those who have undue honour paid them, Si populus vult decipi, decipiatur--If the people will be deceived, let them; but that is an ill maxim for those to go by whose business it is to undeceive people. The lip of truth shall be established.

      (3.) John professes the great satisfaction he had in the advancement of Christ and his interest. He was so far from regretting it, as his disciples did, that he rejoiced in it. This he expresses (v. 29) by an elegant similitude. [1.] He compares our Saviour to the bridegroom: "He that hath the bride is the bridegroom. Do all men come to him? It is well, whither else should they go? Has he got the throne in men's affections? Who else should have it? It is his right; to whom should the bride be brought but to the bridegroom?" Christ was prophesied of in the Old Testament as a bridegroom, Ps. xlv. The Word was made flesh, that the disparity of nature might not be a bar to the match. Provision is made for the purifying of the church, that the defilement of sin might be no bar. Christ espouses his church to himself; he has the bride, for he has her love, he has her promise; the church is subject to Christ. As far as particular souls are devoted to him in faith and love, so far the bridegroom has the bride. [2.] He compares himself to the friend of the bridegroom, who attends upon him, to do him honour and service, assists him in prosecuting the match, speaks a good word for him, uses his interest on his behalf, rejoices when the match goes on, and most of all when the point is gained, and he has the bride. All that John had done in preaching and baptizing was to introduce him; and, now that he was come, he had what he wished for: The friend of the bridegroom stands, and hears him; stands expecting him, and waiting for him; rejoices with joy because of the bridegroom's voice, because he is come to the marriage after he had been long expected. Note, First, Faithful ministers are friends of the bridegroom, to recommend him to the affections and choice of the children of men; to bring letters and messages from him, for he courts by proxy; and herein they must be faithful to him. Secondly, The friends of the bridegroom must stand, and hear the bridegroom's voice; must receive instructions from him, and attend his orders; must desire to have proofs of Christ speaking in them, and with them (2 Cor. xiii. 3); that is the bridegroom's voice. Thirdly, The espousing of souls to Jesus Christ, in faith and love, is the fulfilling of the joy of every good minister. If the day of Christ's espousals be the day of the gladness of his heart (Cant. iii. 11), it cannot but be of their too who love him and wish well to his honour and kingdom. Surely they have no greater joy.

      (4.) He owns it highly fit and necessary that the reputation and interest of Christ should be advanced, and his own diminished (v. 30): He must increase, but I must decrease. If they grieve at the growing greatness of the Lord Jesus, they will have more and more occasion to grieve, as those have that indulge themselves in envy and emulation. John speaks of Christ's increase and his own decrease, not only as necessary and unavoidable, which could not be helped and therefore must be borne, but as highly just and agreeable, and affording him entire satisfaction. [1.] He was well pleased to see the kingdom of Christ getting ground: "He must increase. You think he has gained a great deal, but it is nothing to what he will gain." Note, The kingdom of Christ is, and will be, a growing kingdom, like the light of the morning, like the grain of mustard-seed. [2.] He was not at all displeased that the effect of this was the diminishing of his own interest: I must decrease. Created excellencies are under this law, they must decrease. I have seen an end of all perfection. Note, First, The shining forth of the glory of Christ eclipses the lustre of all other glory. The glory that stands in competition with Christ, that of the world and the flesh, decreases and loses ground in the soul as the knowledge and love of Christ increase and get ground; but it is here spoken of that which is subservient to him. As the light of the morning increases, that of the morning star decreases. Secondly, If our diminution or abasement may but in the least contribute to the advancement of Christ's name, we must cheerfully submit to it, and be content to be any thing, to be nothing, so that Christ may be all.

      2. John Baptist here advances Christ, and instructs his disciples concerning him, that, instead of grieving that so many come to him, they might come to him themselves.

      (1.) He instructs them concerning the dignity of Christ's person (v. 31): He that cometh from above, that cometh from heaven, is above all. Here, [1.] He supposes his divine origin, that he came from above, from heaven, which bespeaks not only his divine extraction, but his divine nature. He had a being before his conception, a heavenly being. None but he that came from heaven was fit to show us the will of heaven, or the way to heaven. When God would save man, he sent from above. [2.] Hence he infers his sovereign authority: he is above all, above all things and all persons, God over all, blessed for evermore. It is daring presumption to dispute precedency with him. When we come to speak of the honours of the Lord Jesus, we find they transcend all conception and expression, and we can say but this, He is above all. It was said of John Baptist, There is not a greater among them that are born of women. But the descent of Christ from heaven put such a dignity upon him as he was not divested of by his being made flesh; still he was above all. This he further illustrates by the meanness of those who stood in competition with him: He that is of the earth, is earthly, ho on ek tes ges, ek tes ges esti--He that is of the earth is of the earth; he that has his origin of the earth has his food out of the earth, has his converse with earthly things, and his concern is for them. Note, First, Man has his rise out of the earth; not only Adam at first, but we also still are formed out of the clay, Job xxxiii. 6. Look to the rock whence we were hewn. Secondly, Man's constitution is therefore earthly; not only his body frail and mortal, but his soul corrupt and carnal, and its bent and bias strong towards earthly things. The prophets and apostles were of the same mould with other men; they were but earthen vessels, though they had a rich treasure lodged in them; and shall these be set up as rivals with Christ? Let the potsherds strive with the potsherds of the earth; but let them not cope with him that came from heaven.

      (2.) Concerning the excellency and certainty of his doctrine. His disciples were displeased that Christ's preaching was admired, and attended upon, more than his; but he tells them that there was reason enough for it. For,

      [1.] He, for his part, spoke of the earth, and so do all those that are of the earth. The prophets were men and spoke like men; of themselves they could not speak but of the earth, 2 Cor. iii. 5. The preaching of the prophets and of John was but low and flat compared with Christ's preaching; as heaven is high above the earth, so were his thoughts above theirs. By them God spoke on earth, but in Christ he speaketh from heaven.

      [2.] But he that cometh from heaven is not only in his person, but in his doctrine, above all the prophets that ever lived on earth; none teacheth like him. The doctrine of Christ is here recommended to us,

      First, As infallibly sure and certain, and to be entertained accordingly (v. 32): What he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth. See here, 1. Christ's divine knowledge; he testified nothing but what he had seen and heard, what he was perfectly apprized of and thoroughly acquainted with. What he discovered of the divine nature and of the invisible world was what he had seen; what he revealed of the mind of God was what he had heard immediately from him, and not at second hand. The prophets testified what was made known to them in creams and visions by the mediation of angels, but not what they had seen and heard. John was the crier's voice, that said, "Make room for the witness, and keep silence while the charge is given," but then leaves it to the witness to give in his testimony himself, and the judge to give the charge himself. The gospel of Christ is not a doubtful opinion, like an hypothesis or new notion in philosophy, which every one is at liberty to believe or not; but it is a revelation of the mind of God, which is of eternal truth in itself, and of infinite concern to us. 2. His divine grace and goodness: that which he had seen and heard he was pleased to make known to us, because he knew it nearly concerned us. What Paul had seen and heard in the third heavens he could not testify (2 Cor. xii. 4), but Christ knew how to utter what he had seen and heard. Christ's preaching is here called his testifying, to denote, (1.) The convincing evidence of it; it was not reported as news by hearsay, but it was testified as evidence given in court, with great caution and assurance. (2.) The affectionate earnestness of the delivery of it: it was testified with concern and importunity, as Acts xviii. 5.

      From the certainty of Christ's doctrine, John takes occasion, [1.] To lament the infidelity of the most of men: though he testifies what is infallibly true, yet no man receiveth his testimony, that is, very few, next to none, none in comparison with those that refuse it. They receive it not, they will not hear it, they do not heed it, or give credit to it. This he speaks of not only as a matter of wonder, that such a testimony should not be received (Who hath believed our report? How stupid and foolish are the greatest part of mankind, what enemies to themselves!) but as matter of grief; John's disciples grieved that all men came to Christ (v. 26); they thought his followers too many. But John grieves that no man came to him; he thought them too few. Note, The unbelief of sinners is the grief of saints. It was for this that St. Paul had great heaviness, Rom. ix. 2. [2.] He takes occasion to commend the faith of the chosen remnant (v. 33): He that hath received his testimony (and some such there were, though very few) hath set to his seal that God is true. God is true, though we do not set our seal to it; let God be true, and every man a liar; his truth needs not our faith to support it, but by faith we do ourselves the honour and justice to subscribe to his truth, and hereby God reckons himself honoured. God's promises are all yea and amen; by faith we put our amen to them, as Rev. xxii. 20. Observe, He that receives the testimony of Christ subscribes not only to the truth of Christ, but to the truth of God, for his name is the Word of God; the commandments of God and the testimony of Christ are put together, Rev. xii. 17. By believing in Christ we set to our seal, First, That God is true to all the promises which he has made concerning Christ, that which he spoke by the mouth of all his holy prophets; what he swore to our fathers is all accomplished, and not one iota or tittle of it fallen to the ground, Luke i. 70, &c. Acts xiii. 32, 33. Secondly, That he is true to all the promises he has made in Christ; we venture our souls upon God's veracity, being satisfied that he is true; we are willing to deal with him upon trust, and to quit all in this world for a happiness in reversion and out of sight. By this we greatly honour God's faithfulness. Whom we give credit to we give honour to.

      Secondly, It is recommended to us as a divine doctrine; not his own, but his that sent him (v. 34): For he whom God hath sent speaketh the word of God, which he was sent to speak, and enabled to speak; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him. The prophets were as messengers that brought letters from heaven; but Christ came under the character of an ambassador, and treats with us as such; for, 1. He spoke the words of God, and nothing he said savoured of human infirmity; both substance and language were divine. He proved himself sent of God (ch. iii. 2), and therefore his words are to be received as the words of God. By this rule we may try the spirits: those that speak as the oracles of God, and prophesy according to the proportion of faith, are to be received as sent of God. 2. He spoke as no other prophet did; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure to him. None can speak the words of God without the Spirit of God, 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. The Old-Testament prophets had the Spirit, and in different degrees, 2 Kings ii. 9, 10. But, whereas God gave them the Spirit by measure (1 Cor. xii. 4), he gave him to Christ without measure; all fulness dwelt in him, the fulness of the Godhead, an immeasurable fulness. The Spirit was not in Christ as in a vessel, but as in a fountain, as in a bottomless ocean. "The prophets that had the Spirit in a limited manner, only with respect to some particular revelation, sometimes spoke of themselves; but he that had the Spirit always residing in him, without stint, always spoke the words of God." So Dr. Whitby.

      (3.) Concerning the power and authority he is invested with, which gives him the pre-eminence above all others, and a more excellent name than they.

      [1.] He is the beloved Son of the Father (v. 35): The Father loveth the Son. The prophets were faithful as servants, but Christ as a Son; they were employed as servants, but Christ beloved as a son, always his delight, Prov. viii. 30. The Father was well pleased in him; not only he did love him, but he doth love him; he continued his love to him even in his estate of humiliation, loved him never the less for his poverty and sufferings.

      [2.] He is Lord of all. The Father, as an evidence of his love for him, hath given all things into his hand. Love is generous. The Father took such a complacency and had such a confidence in him that he constituted him the great feoffee in trust for mankind. Having given him the Spirit without measure, he gave him all things; for he was hereby qualified to be master and manager of all. Note, It is the honour of Christ, and the unspeakable comfort of all Christians, that the Father hath given all things into the hands of the Mediator. First, All power; so it is explained, Matt. xxviii. 18. All the works of creation being put under his feet, all the affairs of redemption are put into his hand; he is Lord of all. Angels are his servants; devils are his captives. He has power over all flesh, the heathen given him for his inheritance. The kingdom of providence is committed to his administration. He has power to settle the terms of the covenant of peace as the great plenipotentiary, to govern his church as the great lawgiver, to dispense divine favours as the great almoner, and to call all to account as the great Judge. Both the golden sceptre and the iron rod are given into his hand. Secondly, All grace is given into his hand as the channel of conveyance; all things, all those good things which God intended to give to the children of men; eternal life, and all its preliminaries. We are unworthy that the Father should give those things into our hands, for we have made ourselves the children of his wrath; he hath therefore appointed the Son of his love to be trustee for us, and the things he intended for us he gives into his hands, who is worthy, and has merited both honours for himself and favours for us. They are given into his hands, by him to be given into ours. This is a great encouragement to faith, that the riches of the new covenant are deposited in so sure, so kind, so good a hand, the hand of him that purchased them for us, and us for himself, who is able to keep all that which both God and believers have agreed to commit to him.

      [3.] He is the object of that faith which is made the great condition of eternal happiness, and herein he has the pre-eminence above all others: He that believeth on the Son, hath life, v. 36. We have here the application of what he had said concerning Christ and his doctrine; and it is the conclusion of the whole matter. If God has put this honour upon the Son, we must by faith give honour to him. As God offers and conveys good things to us by the testimony of Jesus Christ, whose word is the vehicle of divine favours, so we receive and partake of those favours by believing the testimony, and entertaining that word as true and good; this way of receiving fitly answers that way of giving. We have here the sum of that gospel which is to be preached to every creature, Mark xvi. 16. Here is,

      First, The blessed state of all true Christians: He that believes on the Son hath everlasting life. Note, 1. It is the character of every true Christian that he believes on the Son of God; not only believes him, that what he saith is true, but believes on him, consents to him, and confides in him. The benefit of true Christianity is no less than everlasting life; this is what Christ came to purchase for us and confer upon us; it can be no less than the happiness of an immortal soul in an immortal God. 2. True believers, even now, have everlasting life; not only they shall have it hereafter, but they have it now. For, (1.) They have very good security for it. The deed by which it passeth is sealed and delivered to them, and so they have it; it is put into the hands of their guardian for them, and so they have it, though the use be not yet transferred into possession. They have the Son of God, and in him they have life; and the Spirit of God, the earnest of this life. (2.) They have the comfortable foretastes of it, in present communion with God and the tokens of his love. Grace is glory begun.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

1 sn See the note on Pharisees in 1:24.

2 tn Grk "a ruler of the Jews" (denoting a member of the Sanhedrin, the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

3 tn Grk "him"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

4 tn Or "during the night."

sn Possibly Nicodemus came...at night because he was afraid of public association with Jesus, or he wanted a lengthy discussion without interruptions; no explanation for the timing of the interview is given by the author. But the timing is significant for John in terms of the light-darkness motif - compare John 9:4, 11:10, 13:30 (especially), 19:39, and 21:3. Out of the darkness of his life and religiosity Nicodemus came to the Light of the world. The author probably had multiple meanings or associations in mind here, as is often the case.

5 sn The reference to signs (σημεῖα, shmeia) forms a link with John 2:23-25. Those people in Jerusalem believed in Jesus because of the signs he had performed. Nicodemus had apparently seen them too. But for Nicodemus all the signs meant is that Jesus was a great teacher sent from God. His approach to Jesus was well-intentioned but theologically inadequate; he had failed to grasp the messianic implications of the miraculous signs.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

6 tn Grk "answered and said to him."

7 tn Grk "Truly, truly, I say to you."

8 tn The word ἄνωθεν (anwqen) has a double meaning, either "again" (in which case it is synonymous with παλίν [palin]) or "from above" (BDAG 92 s.v. ἄνωθεν). This is a favorite technique of the author of the Fourth Gospel, and it is lost in almost all translations at this point. John uses the word 5 times, in 3:3, 7; 3:31; 19:11 and 23. In the latter 3 cases the context makes clear that it means "from above." Here (3:3, 7) it could mean either, but the primary meaning intended by Jesus is "from above." Nicodemus apparently understood it the other way, which explains his reply, "How can a man be born when he is old? He can't enter his mother's womb a second time and be born, can he?" The author uses the technique of the "misunderstood question" often to bring out a particularly important point: Jesus says something which is misunderstood by the disciples or (as here) someone else, which then gives Jesus the opportunity to explain more fully and in more detail what he really meant.

sn Or born again. The Greek word ἄνωθεν (anwqen) can mean both "again" and "from above," giving rise to Nicodemus' misunderstanding about a second physical birth (v. 4).

9 sn What does Jesus' statement about not being able to see the kingdom of God mean within the framework of John's Gospel? John uses the word kingdom (βασιλεία, basileia) only 5 times (3:3, 5; 18:36 [3x]). Only here is it qualified with the phrase of God. The fact that John does not stress the concept of the kingdom of God does not mean it is absent from his theology, however. Remember the messianic implications found in John 2, both the wedding and miracle at Cana and the cleansing of the temple. For Nicodemus, the term must surely have brought to mind the messianic kingdom which Messiah was supposed to bring. But Nicodemus had missed precisely this point about who Jesus was. It was the Messiah himself with whom Nicodemus was speaking. Whatever Nicodemus understood, it is clear that the point is this: He misunderstood Jesus' words. He over-literalized them, and thought Jesus was talking about repeated physical birth, when he was in fact referring to new spiritual birth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

10 The Bible.org ministry has provided the NET Bible® at no cost for inclusion in this Bible study software. You can learn about bible.org’s Ministry First model where we share the NET Bible and thousands of other copyrighted biblical materials at www.bible.org/ministryfirst . Ministry First means what it implies, that we’ve chosen to put ministry ahead of money. We believe that the Bible teaches the ministry first concept very clearly – and we think everyone in the world should have free access to trustworthy Bibles and study materials. Tell your friends to get their free NET Bible and free access to thousands of trustworthy Bible study materials online at www.bible.org . This free NET Bible® module includes all the translators’ notes for the first chapter of each book plus all the notes on verses 1-3 for the remaining 1,123 chapters in the Bible. We encourage you to upgrade this free version to the premier full NET Bible® version containing all 60,932 notes. This is the most complete set of translators’ notes in any Bible translation and illuminates many important issues of translation and interpretation. You can upgrade by going to www.bible.org/upgrade where you can purchase the full NET Bible or even download basic versions with all 60,932 translators’ notes for free! Your purchases and donations help ensure the ongoing supply of new resources and tools from Bible.org, which is the world’s largest source of trustworthy – and free – Bible study materials.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

11 The Bible.org ministry has provided the NET Bible® at no cost for inclusion in this Bible study software. You can learn about bible.org’s Ministry First model where we share the NET Bible and thousands of other copyrighted biblical materials at www.bible.org/ministryfirst . Ministry First means what it implies, that we’ve chosen to put ministry ahead of money. We believe that the Bible teaches the ministry first concept very clearly – and we think everyone in the world should have free access to trustworthy Bibles and study materials. Tell your friends to get their free NET Bible and free access to thousands of trustworthy Bible study materials online at www.bible.org . This free NET Bible® module includes all the translators’ notes for the first chapter of each book plus all the notes on verses 1-3 for the remaining 1,123 chapters in the Bible. We encourage you to upgrade this free version to the premier full NET Bible® version containing all 60,932 notes. This is the most complete set of translators’ notes in any Bible translation and illuminates many important issues of translation and interpretation. You can upgrade by going to www.bible.org/upgrade where you can purchase the full NET Bible or even download basic versions with all 60,932 translators’ notes for free! Your purchases and donations help ensure the ongoing supply of new resources and tools from Bible.org, which is the world’s largest source of trustworthy – and free – Bible study materials.

12


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

13 The Bible.org ministry has provided the NET Bible® at no cost for inclusion in this Bible study software. You can learn about bible.org’s Ministry First model where we share the NET Bible and thousands of other copyrighted biblical materials at www.bible.org/ministryfirst . Ministry First means what it implies, that we’ve chosen to put ministry ahead of money. We believe that the Bible teaches the ministry first concept very clearly – and we think everyone in the world should have free access to trustworthy Bibles and study materials. Tell your friends to get their free NET Bible and free access to thousands of trustworthy Bible study materials online at www.bible.org . This free NET Bible® module includes all the translators’ notes for the first chapter of each book plus all the notes on verses 1-3 for the remaining 1,123 chapters in the Bible. We encourage you to upgrade this free version to the premier full NET Bible® version containing all 60,932 notes. This is the most complete set of translators’ notes in any Bible translation and illuminates many important issues of translation and interpretation. You can upgrade by going to www.bible.org/upgrade where you can purchase the full NET Bible or even download basic versions with all 60,932 translators’ notes for free! Your purchases and donations help ensure the ongoing supply of new resources and tools from Bible.org, which is the world’s largest source of trustworthy – and free – Bible study materials.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

14

15


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

16

17


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

18

19


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

20

21


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

22

23

24

25


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

26

27


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

28

29

30


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

31

32

33

34


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,15:

35


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

36

37

38

39


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

40


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

41

42

43


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

44

45


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

46


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

47


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

48

49

50

51


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

52


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

53

54


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

55


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

56


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,28:

57


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,29:

58

59


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,30:

60


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

61

62

63

64


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

65


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

66

67


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

68


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

69

70

71


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,1:

Now (δε). So often in John δε is explanatory and transitional, not adversative. Nicodemus is an instance of Christ's knowledge of men (2:25) and of one to whom he did trust himself unlike those in 2:24. As a Pharisee "he belonged to that party which with all its bigotry contained a salt of true patriotism and could rear such cultured and high-toned men as Gamaliel and Paul" (Marcus Dods).

Named Nicodemus (Νικοδημος ονομα). Same construction as in 1:6, "Nicodemus name to him." So Re 6:8. It is a Greek name and occurs in Josephus (Ant. XIV. iii. 2) as the name of an ambassador from Aristobulus to Pompey. Only in John in N.T. (here, 7:50; 19:39). He was a Pharisee, a member of the Sanhedrin, and wealthy. There is no evidence that he was the young ruler of Lu 18:18 because of αρχων (ruler) here.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,2:

The same (ουτος). "This one."

By night (νυκτος). Genitive of time. That he came at all is remarkable, not because there was any danger as was true at a later period, but because of his own prominence. He wished to avoid comment by other members of the Sanhedrin and others. Jesus had already provoked the opposition of the ecclesiastics by his assumption of Messianic authority over the temple. There is no ground for assigning this incident to a later period, for it suits perfectly here. Jesus was already in the public eye (2:23) and the interest of Nicodemus was real and yet he wished to be cautious.

Rabbi (Ραββε). See on 1:38. Technically Jesus was not an acknowledged Rabbi of the schools, but Nicodemus does recognize him as such and calls him "My Master" just as Andrew and John did (1:38). It was a long step for Nicodemus as a Pharisee to take, for the Pharisees had closely scrutinized the credentials of the Baptist in 1:19-24 (Milligan and Moulton's Comm.).

We know (οιδαμεν). Second perfect indicative first person plural. He seems to speak for others of his class as the blind man does in 9:31. Westcott thinks that Nicodemus has been influenced partly by the report of the commission sent to the Baptist (1:19-27).

Thou art a teacher come from God (απο θεου εληλυθας διδασκαλος). "Thou hast come from God as a teacher." Second perfect active indicative of ερχομα and predicative nominative διδασκαλος. This is the explanation of Nicodemus for coming to Jesus, obscure Galilean peasant as he seemed, evidence that satisfied one of the leaders in Pharisaism.

Can do (δυνατα ποιειν). "Can go on doing" (present active infinitive of ποιεω and so linear).

These signs that thou doest (ταυτα τα σημεια α συ ποιεις). Those mentioned in 2:23 that convinced so many in the crowd and that now appeal to the scholar. Note συ (thou) as quite out of the ordinary. The scorn of Jesus by the rulers held many back to the end (Joh 12:42), but Nicodemus dares to feel his way.

Except God be with him (εαν μη η ο θεος μετ' αυτου). Condition of the third class, presented as a probability, not as a definite fact. He wanted to know more of the teaching accredited thus by God. Jesus went about doing good because God was with him, Peter says (Ac 10:38).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,3:

Except a man be born anew (εαν μη τις γεννηθη ανωθεν). Another condition of the third class, undetermined but with prospect of determination. First aorist passive subjunctive of γενναω. Ανωθεν. Originally "from above" (Mr 15:38), then "from heaven" (Joh 3:31), then "from the first" (Lu 1:3), and then "again" (παλιν ανωθεν, Ga 4:9). Which is the meaning here? The puzzle of Nicodemus shows (δευτερον, verse 4) that he took it as "again," a second birth from the womb. The Vulgate translates it by renatus fuerit denuo. But the misapprehension of Nicodemus does not prove the meaning of Jesus. In the other passages in John (3:31; 19:11,23) the meaning is "from above" (δεσυπερ) and usually so in the Synoptics. It is a second birth, to be sure, regeneration, but a birth from above by the Spirit.

He cannot see the kingdom of God (ου δυνατα ιδειν την βασιλειαν του θεου). To participate in it as in Lu 9:27. For this use of ιδειν (second aorist active infinitive of οραω) see Joh 8:51; Re 18:7.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,4:

Being old (γερων ων). Nicodemus was probably familiar with the notion of re-birth for proselytes to Judaism for the Gentiles, but not with the idea that a Jew had to be reborn. But "this stupid misunderstanding" (Bernard) of the meaning of Jesus is precisely what John represents Nicodemus as making. How "old" Nicodemus was we do not know, but surely too old to be the young ruler of Lu 18:18 as Bacon holds. The blunder of Nicodemus is emphasized by the second question with the μη expecting the negative answer. The use of δευτερον adds to the grotesqueness of his blunder. The learned Pharisee is as jejune in spiritual insight as the veriest tyro. This is not an unheard of phenomenon.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,5:

Of water and the Spirit (εξ υδατος κα πνευματος). Nicodemus had failed utterly to grasp the idea of the spiritual birth as essential to entrance into the Kingdom of God. He knew only Jews as members of that kingdom, the political kingdom of Pharisaic hope which was to make all the world Jewish (Pharisaic) under the King Messiah. Why does Jesus add εξ υδατος here? In verse 3 we have "ανωθεν" (from above) which is repeated in verse 7, while in verse 8 we have only εκ του πνευματος (of the Spirit) in the best manuscripts. Many theories exist. One view makes baptism, referred to by εξ υδατος (coming up out of water), essential to the birth of the Spirit, as the means of obtaining the new birth of the Spirit. If so, why is water mentioned only once in the three demands of Jesus (3,5,7)? Calvin makes water and Spirit refer to the one act (the cleansing work of the Spirit). Some insist on the language in verse 6 as meaning the birth of the flesh coming in a sac of water in contrast to the birth of the Spirit. One wonders after all what was the precise purpose of Jesus with Nicodemus, the Pharisaic ceremonialist, who had failed to grasp the idea of spiritual birth which is a commonplace to us. By using water (the symbol before the thing signified) first and adding Spirit, he may have hoped to turn the mind of Nicodemus away from mere physical birth and, by pointing to the baptism of John on confession of sin which the Pharisees had rejected, to turn his attention to the birth from above by the Spirit. That is to say the mention of "water" here may have been for the purpose of helping Nicodemus without laying down a fundamental principle of salvation as being by means of baptism. Bernard holds that the words υδατος κα (water and) do not belong to the words of Jesus, but "are a gloss, added to bring the saying of Jesus into harmony with the belief and practice of a later generation." Here Jesus uses εισελθειν (enter) instead of ιδειν (see) of verse 3, but with the same essential idea (participation in the kingdom).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,6:

That which is born (το γεγεννημενον). Perfect passive articular participle. The sharp contrast between flesh (σαρξ) and Spirit (πνευμα), drawn already in 1:13, serves to remind Nicodemus of the crudity of his question in 3:4 about a second physical birth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,7:

Marvel not (μη θαυμασηις). "Do not begin to wonder" (ingressive first aorist active subjunctive with μη), as clearly Nicodemus had done. In John the word θαυμαζω usually means "unintelligent wonder" (Bernard).

Ye must be born anew (δε υμας γεννηθηνα ανωθεν). Jesus repeats the point in verse 3 (δε and the infinitive instead of εαν μη and the subjunctive) with ανωθεν (from above) only and not εξ υδατος.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,8:

The wind (το πνευμα). In Greek πνευμα means either wind or spirit as spiritus does in Latin (so also in Hebrew and Syriac). Wycliff follows the Latin and keeps spirit here and Marcus Dods argues for it. The word πνευμα occurs 370 times in the N.T. and never means wind elsewhere except in a quotation from the O.T. (Heb 1:7 from Ps 104:4), though common in the LXX. On the other hand πνεω (bloweth, πνε) occurs five times elsewhere in the N.T. and always of the wind (like Joh 6:18). So φωνη can be either sound (as of wind) or voice (as of the Spirit). In simple truth either sense of πνευμα can be taken here as one wills. Tholuck thinks that the night-wind swept through the narrow street as Jesus spoke. In either case the etymology of πνευμα is "wind" from πνεω, to blow. The Spirit is the use of πνευμα as metaphor. Certainly the conclusion "of the Spirit" is a direct reference to the Holy Spirit who works his own way beyond our comprehension even as men even yet do not know the law of the wind.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,9:

How? (Πωσ;) Nicodemus is not helped either by the use of υδωρ or πνευμα to understand δε γεννηθηνα ανωθεν (the necessity of the birth from above or regeneration). He falls back into his "stupid misunderstanding." There are none so dull as those who will not see. Preoccupation prevents insight. Literally one must often empty his mind to receive new truth.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,10:

The teacher of Israel (ο διδασκαλος του Ισραηλ). The well-known or the authorized (the accepted) teacher of the Israel of God. Note both articles.

And understandest not these things? (κα ταυτα ου γινωσκεισ;). After being told by Jesus and after so propitious a start. His Pharisaic theology had made him almost proof against spiritual apprehension. It was outside of his groove (rote, rut, rot, the three terrible r's of mere traditionalism).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,11:

We speak that we do know (ο οιδαμεν λαλουμεν). Jesus simply claims knowledge of what he has tried to make plain to the famous Rabbi without success. John uses λαλεω some 60 times, half of them by Jesus, very little distinction existing between the use of λαλεω and λεγω in John. Originally λαλεω referred to the chatter of birds. Note John's frequent use of αμην αμην and λεγω (double emphasis).

And bear witness of that we have seen (κα ο εωρακαμεν μαρτυρουμεν). The same use of neuter singular relative ο as before. Perfect active indicative of οραω. He is not a dreamer, guesser, or speculator. He is bearing witness from personal knowledge, strange as this may seem to Nicodemus.

And ye receive not our witness (κα την μαρτυριαν ημων ου λαμβανετε). This is the tragedy of the matter as John has shown (1:11,26) and as will continue to be true even today. Jesus probably associates here with himself ("we") those who have personal experience of grace and so are qualified as witnesses. Note the plural in 1Jo 1:1f. Bernard thinks that John has here read into the words of Jesus the convictions of a later age, a serious charge to make.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,12:

If I told (ε ειπον). Condition of the first class, assumed to be true.

Earthly things (τα επιγεια). Things upon the earth like τα επ της γης (Col 3:2), not things of an earthly nature or worldly or sinful. The work of the kingdom of God including the new birth which Nicodemus did not understand belongs to τα επιγεια.

If I tell you heavenly things (εαν ειπω υμιν τα επουρανια). Condition of the third class, undetermined. What will Nicodemus do in that case? By τα επουρανια Jesus means the things that take place in heaven like the deep secrets of the purpose of God in the matter of redemption such as the necessity of the lifting up of Christ as shown in verse 14. Both Godet and Westcott note that the two types of teaching here pointed out by Jesus (the earthly, the heavenly) correspond in general to the difference between the Synoptics (the earthly) and the Fourth Gospel (the heavenly), a difference noted here in the Fourth Gospel as shown by Jesus himself. Hence the one should not be pitted against the other. There are specimens of the heavenly in the Synoptics as in Mt 11:25ff.; Lu 10:18ff.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,13:

But he that descended out of heaven (ε μη ο εκ του ουρανου καταβας). The Incarnation of the Pre-existent Son of God who was in heaven before he came down and so knows what he is telling about "the heavenly things." There is no allusion to the Ascension which came later. This high conception of Christ runs all through the Gospel and is often in Christ's own words as here.

Which is in heaven (ο ων εν τω ουρανω). This phrase is added by some manuscripts, not by Aleph B L W 33, and, if genuine, would merely emphasize the timeless existence of God's Son who is in heaven even while on earth. Probably a gloss. But "the Son of man" is genuine. He is the one who has come down out of heaven.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,14:

Moses lifted up the serpent (Μωυσης υψωσεν τον οφιν). Reference to Nu 21:7ff. where Moses set the brazen serpent upon the standard that those who believed might look and live. Jesus draws a vivid parallel between the act of Moses and the Cross on which he himself (the Son of man) "must" (δε, one of the heavenly things) "be lifted up" (υψωθηνα, first aorist passive infinitive of υψοω, a word not used about the brazen serpent). In John υψοω always refers to the Cross (8:28; 12:32,34), though to the Ascension in Acts (Ac 2:33; 5:31). Jesus is complimenting the standing and intelligence of Nicodemus as "the teacher of Israel" by telling him this great truth and fact that lies at the basis of the work of the kingdom of God (the atoning death of Christ on the Cross).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,15:

That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life (ινα πας ο πιστευων εν αυτω εχη ζωην αιωνιον). Final use of ινα with present active subjunctive of εχω, that he may keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in John αιωνιος occurs with ζωη, 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in 1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life of God in Christ (5:26; 17:3; 1Jo 5:12). So here εν αυτω (in him) is taken with εχη rather than with πιστευων. The interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with verse 15. In verses 16-21 we have past tenses constantly as is natural for the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There are phrases like the Prologue (verse 19; 1:9-11). "Only begotten" does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is in 1:14,18; 1Jo 4:9. John often puts in explanatory comments (1:16-18; 12:37-41).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,16:

For so (ουτως γαρ). This use of γαρ is quite in John's style in introducing his comments (2:25; 4:8; 5:13, etc.). This "Little Gospel" as it is often called, this "comfortable word" (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In verses 16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus.

Loved (ηγαπησεν). First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω, the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (14:23; 17:23; 1Jo 3:1; 4:10) of God's love for man (cf. 2Th 2:16; Ro 5:8; Eph 2:4). In 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω and φιλεω. Αγαπαω is used also for love of men for men (13:34), for Jesus (8:42), for God (1Jo 4:10).

The world (τον κοσμον). The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God's love appears also in 2Co 5:19; Ro 5:8.

That he gave (ωστε εδωκεν). The usual classical construction with ωστε and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Ga 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Mt 13:32) as well as purpose (Mt 10:1), though even this is rare.

His only begotten Son (τον υιον τον μονογενη). "The Son the only begotten." For this word see on 1:14,18; 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ινα-εχη precisely reproduces the close of 3:15 save that εις αυτον takes the place of εν αυτω (see 1:12) and goes certainly with πιστευων (not with εχη as εν αυτω in verse 15) and the added clause "should not perish but" (μη απολητα αλλα, second aorist middle subjunctive, intransitive, of απολλυμ, to destroy). The same contrast between "perish" and "eternal life" (for this world and the next) appears also in 10:28. On "perish" see also 17:12.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,17:

For God sent not the Son (ου γαρ απεστειλεν ο θεος τον υιον). Explanation (γαρ) of God's sending the Son into the world. First aorist active indicative of αποστελλω. John uses both αποστελλω from which comes αποστολος (3:34; 5:36,38, etc.) and πεμπω (4:34; 5:23,24,30, etc.) for God's sending the Son and πεμπω more frequently, but with no real difference in meaning. All the Gospels use ο υιος in the absolute sense in contrast with the Father (Mr 13:32; Mt 11:27; Lu 10:22).

To judge (ινα κρινη). Final clause with ινα and the present (or aorist) active subjunctive of κρινω. The Messiah does judge the world as Jesus taught (Mt 25:31f.; Joh 5:27), but this was not the primary or the only purpose of his coming. See on Mt 7:1 for κρινω, to pick out, select, approve, condemn, used so often and in so many varying contexts in the N.T.

But that the world should be saved through him (αλλ ινα σωθη ο κοσμος δι' αυτου). First aorist passive subjunctive of σωζω, the common verb to save (from σως, safe and sound), from which σωτηρ (Saviour) comes (the Saviour of the world, 4:42; 1Jo 4:14) and σωτηρια (salvation, 4:22 here only in John). The verb σωζω is often used for physical health (Mr 5:28), but here of the spiritual salvation as in 5:34.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,18:

Is not judged (ου κρινετα). Present passive indicative. Trust in Christ prevents condemnation, for he takes our place and pays the penalty for sin for all who put their case in his hands (Ro 8:32f.). The believer in Christ as Saviour does not come into judgment (Joh 5:24).

Hath been judged already (ηδη κεκριτα). Perfect passive indicative of κρινω. Judgment has already been passed on the one who refuses to believe in Christ as the Saviour sent by the Father, the man who is not willing to come to Christ for life (5:40).

Because he hath not believed (οτ μη πεπιστευκεν). Perfect active indicative of πιστευω, has taken a permanent attitude of refusal. Here οτ μη states the reason subjectively as the judgment of the Judge in any such case (ο μη πιστευων already mentioned) while in 1Jo 5:10 οτ ου πεπιστευκεν gives the reason objectively (ου instead of μη) conceived as an actual case and no longer hypothetical. See 1:12 for εις το ονομα with πιστευω (believing on the name) and 1:14 for μονογενους (only begotten) and also 3:16.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,19:

And this is the judgment (αυτη δε εστιν η κρισις). A thoroughly Johannine phrase for sequence of thought (15:12; 17:3; 1Jo 1:5; 5:11,14; 3Jo 1:6). It is more precisely the process of judging (κρι-σις) rather than the result (κρι-μα) of the judgment. "It is no arbitrary sentence, but the working out of a moral law" (Bernard).

The light is come (το φως εληλυθεν). Second perfect active indicative of ερχομα, a permanent result as already explained in the Prologue concerning the Incarnation (1:4,5,9,11). Jesus is the Light of the world.

Loved darkness (ηγαπησαν το σκοτος). Job (Job 24:13) spoke of men rebelling against the light. Here το σκοτος, common word for moral and spiritual darkness (1Th 5:5), though η σκοτια in Joh 1:5. "Darkness" is common in John as a metaphor for the state of sinners (8:12; 12:35, 46; 1Jo 1:6; 2:8,9,11). Jesus himself is the only moral and spiritual light of the world (8:12) as he dared claim to his enemies. The pathos of it all is that men fall in love with the darkness of sin and rebel against the light like denizens of the underworld, "for their works were evil (πονηρα)." When the light appears, they scatter to their holes and dens. Πονηρος (from πονος, toil, πονεω, to toil) is used of the deeds of the world by Jesus (7:7). In the end the god of this world blinds men's eyes so that they do not see the light (2Co 4:4). The fish in the Mammoth Cave have no longer eyes, but only sockets where eyes used to be. The evil one has a powerful grip on the world (1Jo 5:19).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,20:

That doeth ill (ο φαυλα πρασσων). The word φαυλος means first worthless and then wicked (usually so in N.T.) and both senses occur in the papyri. In 5:29 see contrast between αγαθα ποιεω (doing good things) and φαυλα πρασσω (practising evil things).

Hateth the light (μισε το φως). Hence talks against it, ridicules Christ, Christianity, churches, preachers, etc. Does it in talk, magazines, books, in a supercilious tone of sheer ignorance.

Cometh not to the light (ουκ ερχετα προς το φως). The light hurts his eyes, reveals his own wickedness, makes him thoroughly uncomfortable. Hence he does not read the Bible, he does not come to church, he does not pray. He goes on in deeper darkness.

Lest his works should be reproved (ινα μη ελεγχθη τα εργα αυτου). Negative final clause (ινα μη) with first aorist passive subjunctive of ελεγχω, old word to correct a fault, to reprove, to convict. See also 8:46; 16:8. To escape this unpleasant process the evil man cuts out Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,21:

That doeth the truth (ο ποιων την αληθειαν). See 1Jo 1:6 for this striking phrase.

Comes to the light (ερχετα προς το φως). Is drawn by the light, spiritual heliotropes, not driven from it.

That may be made manifest (ινα φανερωθη). Final ινα with first aorist passive subjunctive of φανεροω.

They have been wrought in God (εν θεω εστιν ειργασμενα). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of εργαζομα. He does not claim that they are perfect, only that they have been wrought in the sphere of and in the power of God. Hence he wants the light turned on.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,22:

After these things (μετα ταυτα). Transition after the interview with Nicodemus. For the phrase see 5:1; 6:1; 7:1.

Into the land of Judea (εις την Ιουδαιαν γην). Into the country districts outside of Jerusalem. The only example of this phrase in the N.T., but "the region of Judea" (η Ιουδαια χωρα) in Mr 1:5.

He tarried (διετριβεν). Descriptive imperfect active of διατριβω, old verb to rub between or hard, to spend time (Ac 14:3).

Baptized (εβαπτιζεν). Imperfect active of βαπτιζω. "He was baptizing." The six disciples were with him and in 4:2 John explains that Jesus did the baptizing through the disciples.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,23:

John was also baptizing (ην δε κα ο Ιωανης βαπτιζων). Periphrastic imperfect picturing the continued activity of the Baptist simultaneous with the growing work of Jesus. There was no real rivalry except in people's minds.

In Aenon near to Salim (εν Αινων εγγυς του Σαλειμ). It is not clearly known where this place was. Eusebius locates it in the Jordan valley south of Beisan west of the river where are many springs (fountains, eyes). There is a place called Salim east of Shechem in Samaria with a village called 'Aimen, but with no water there. There may have been water there then, of course.

Because there was much water there (οτ υδατα πολλα ην εκε). "Because many waters were there." Not for drinking, but for baptizing. "Therefore even in summer baptism by immersion could be continued" (Marcus Dods).

And they came, and were baptized (κα παρεγινοντο κα εβαπτιζοντο). Imperfects both, one middle and the other passive, graphically picturing the long procession of pilgrims who came to John confessing their sins and receiving baptism at his hands.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,24:

For John had not yet been cast into prison (ουπω γαρ ην βεβλημενος εις την φυλακην Ιωανης). Periphrastic past perfect indicative of βαλλω explaining (γαρ) why John was still baptizing, the reason for the imprisonment having been given by Luke (Lu 3:19f.).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,25:

A questioning (ζητησις). Old word from ζητεω. See Ac 15:2 for the word where also ζητημα (question) occurs. Ζητησις (process of inquiry) means a meticulous dispute (1Ti 6:4).

With a Jew (μετα Ιουδαιου). So correct text, not Ιουδαιων (Jews). Probably some Jew resented John's baptism of Jesus as implying impurity or that they were like Gentiles (cf. proselyte baptism).

About purifying (περ καθαρισμου). See 2:6 for the word. The committee from the Sanhedrin had challenged John's right to baptize (1:25). The Jews had various kinds of baptisms or dippings (Heb 6:2), "baptisms of cups and pots and brazen vessels" (Mr 6:4). The disciples of John came to him with the dispute (the first known baptismal controversy, on the meaning of the ceremony) and with a complaint.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,26:

Rabbi (Ραββε). Greeting John just like Jesus (1:38; 3:2).

Beyond Jordan (περαν του Ιορδανου). Evident reference to John's witness to Jesus told in 1:29-34.

To whom thou hast borne witness (ω συ μεμαρτυρηκας). Note avoidance of calling the name of Jesus. Perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω so common in John (1:7, etc.). These disciples of John are clearly jealous of Jesus as a rival of John and they distinctly blame John for his endorsement of one who is already eclipsing him in popularity.

The same baptizeth (ουτος βαπτιζε). "This one is baptizing." Not personally (4:2), as John did, but through his six disciples.

And all men come to him (κα παντες ερχοντα προς αυτον). Linear present middle indicative, "are coming." The sight of the growing crowds with Jesus and the dwindling crowds with John stirred John's followers to keenest jealousy. What a life-like picture of ministerial jealousy in all ages.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,27:

Except it have been given him from heaven (εαν μη η δεδομενον αυτω εκ του ουρανου). See the same idiom in Joh 6:65 (cf. 19:11). Condition of third class, undetermined with prospect of determination, εαν μη with the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of διδωμ. The perfect tense is rare in the subjunctive and an exact rendering into English is awkward, "unless it be granted him from heaven." See 1Co 4:7 where Paul says the same thing.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,28:

I said (ειπον). As in 1:20,23. He had always put Jesus ahead of him as the Messiah (1:15).

Before him (εμπροσθεν εκεινου). "Before that one" (Jesus) as his forerunner simply.

I am sent (απεσταλμενος ειμ). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of αποστελλω.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,29:

The bridegroom (νυμφιος). Predicate nominative without article. Both νυμφη (bride) and νυμφιος are old and common words. Jesus will use this metaphor of himself as the Bridegroom (Mr 2:19) and Paul develops it (2Co 11:2; Eph 5:23-32) and so in Revelation (19:7; 21:2). John is only like the paranymph (παρανυμφιος) or "the friend of the bridegroom." His office is to bring groom and bride together. So he stands expectant (εστηκως, second perfect active participle of ιστημ) and listens (ακουων, present active participle of ακουω) with joy ( rejoiceth greatly , χαρα χαιρε, "with joy rejoices") to the music of the bridegroom's voice.

This my joy therefore is fulfilled (αυτη ουν η χαρα πεπληρωτα). Perfect passive indicative of πληροω, stands filled like a cup to the brim with joy.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,30:

Must (δε). It has to be (see 3:14). He is to go on growing (present active infinitive αυξανειν) while I go on decreasing (present passive infinitive ελαττουσθα, from comparative ελαττων, less). These are the last words that we have from John till the despondent message from the dungeon in Machaerus whether Jesus is after all the Messiah (Mt 11:2; Lu 7:19). He went on to imprisonment, suspense, martyrdom, while Jesus grew in popular favour till he had his via dolorosa. "These last words of St. John are the fulness of religious sacrifice and fitly close his work" (Westcott).


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,31:

Is above all (επανω παντων). Ablative case with the compound preposition επανω. See the same idea in Ro 9:5. Here we have the comments of Evangelist (John) concerning the last words of John in verse 30 which place Jesus above himself. He is above all men, not alone above the Baptist. Bernard follows those who treat verses 31-36 as dislocated and put them after verse 21 (the interview with Nicodemus), but they suit better here.

Of the earth (εκ της γης). John is fond of this use of εκ for origin and source of character as in 1:46; 1Jo 4:5. Jesus is the one that comes out of heaven (ο εκ του ουρανου ερχομενος) as he has shown in 1:1-18. Hence he is "above all."


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,32:

What he hath seen and heard (ο εωρακεν κα ηκουσεν). Perfect active indicative followed by aorist active indicative, because, as Westcott shows, the first belongs to the very existence of the Son and the latter to his mission. There is no confusion of tenses here.

No man (ουδεις). There were crowds coming to Jesus, but they do not really accept him as Saviour and Lord (1:11; 2:24). It is superficial as time will show. But "no one" is not to be pressed too far, for it is the rhetorical use.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,33:

Hath set his seal (εσφραγισεν). First aorist active indicative of σφραγιζω for which verb see Mt 27:66. The metaphor of sealing is a common one for giving attestation as in 6:27. The one who accepts the witness of Jesus attests that Jesus speaks the message of God.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,34:

The words of God (τα ρηματα του θεου). God sent his Son (3:17) and he speaks God's words.

By measure (εκ μετρου). That is God has put no limit to the Spirit's relation to the Son. God has given the Holy Spirit in his fulness to Christ and to no one else in that sense.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,35:

Hath given all things into his hand (παντα δεδωκεν εν τη χειρ αυτου). John makes the same statement about Jesus in 13:3 (using εις τας χειρας instead of εν τη χειρ). Jesus makes the same claim in 5:19-30; Mt 11:27; 28:18.


Evanjelium podľa Jána 3,36:

Hath eternal life (εχε ζωην αιωνιον). Has it here and now and for eternity.

That obeyeth not (ο απειθων). "He that is disobedient to the Son." Jesus is the test of human life as Simeon said he would be (Lu 2:34f.). This verb does not occur again in John's Gospel.

Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:1 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 19:39
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:2 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 7:50
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:2 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 19:39
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:2 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 9:16
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:2 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 9:33
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:2 - Skutky apoštolov 10:38
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:5 - List Títovi 3:5
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:6 - List Rimanom 8:5
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:9 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 6:52
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:11 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 7:16
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:11 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 8:28
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:11 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 12:49
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:11 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 14:24
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:11 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:32
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:13 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 6:62
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:13 - List Efezanom 4:9
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:14 - Kniha Numeri 21:9
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:14 - 2. kniha kráľov 18:4
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:14 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 8:28
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:14 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 12:32
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:15 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:36
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16 - List Rimanom 5:8
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16 - List Rimanom 8:31
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16 - 1. Jánov list 4:9
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:36
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 19:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16 - 1. Jánov list 5:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:17 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 9:56
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:17 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 9:39
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:17 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 12:47
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:17 - 1. Jánov list 4:14
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:18 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 5:24
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:18 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 6:40
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:18 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 6:47
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:18 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 20:31
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:19 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:5
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:21 - List Efezanom 5:8
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:21 - List Efezanom 5:13
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:22 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 4:1
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:23 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:6
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:23 - Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:5
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:23 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:7
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:24 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 14:3
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:26 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:11
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:26 - Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:7
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:26 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:16
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:26 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:15
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:26 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:26
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:26 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:34
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:20
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Kniha proroka Malachiáša 3:1
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 11:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:2
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 1:17
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 7:27
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:21
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:28 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:23
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:31 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 8:23
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:32 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 5:30
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:32 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 8:26
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:32 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 12:49
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:32 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 14:10
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:33 - List Rimanom 3:4
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:34 - List Efezanom 4:7
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:35 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 11:27
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:35 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 28:18
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:35 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 10:22
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:35 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 5:22
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:35 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 17:2
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:35 - List Hebrejom 2:8
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:36 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:16
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:36 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 6:47
Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:36 - 1. Jánov list 5:10
Jn 3,1 - Zákonník Nikodém bol členom veľrady a príslušníkom strany farizejov. Dobrý človek, ale ešte bojazlivý a dbajúci na svetské ohľady.

Jn 3,3-8 - Tento text má zrejme na mysli sviatosť krstu. V krste dostávame Ducha Svätého, princíp nadprirodzeného, Božieho života. Krstom sa teda človek znovuzrodí.

Jn 3,8 - V gréckom (i hebrejskom) jazyku ten istý výraz "pnéuma" znamená aj vietor, aj Ducha.

Jn 3,10 - V Starom zákone je reč o znovuzrodení z Ducha: Iz 44, 3; 59, 21; Ez 11, 19; 36, 26; Zach 12, 10; Joel 2, 28 a iné.

Jn 3,14 - Mojžišov medený had bol predobrazom ukrižovaného Krista - Nm 21, 8 n.

Jn 3,18 - "V meno" je semitizmus; meno predstavuje osobu.

Jn 3,22 - Ježiš (vlastne jeho učeníci - porov. 4, 2) krstil pri dolnom toku Jordánu, Ján Krstiteľ pri jeho strednom toku, neďaleko Beisanu, asi 20 km južne od Genezaretského jazera. Krst Ježišových učeníkov bol ešte ten istý, aký bol Jánov. Krst "v Duchu" bude až po vzkriesení a oslávení Krista.

Jn 3,29 - Sväté písmo častejšie opisuje láskyplný vzťah medzi Bohom a ľuďmi ako lásku snúbencov - manželov: Iz 54, 4-6; 62, 5; Jer 2, 2; 3, 1-5; Ez 16; Oz 2, 2-20; celá Pieseň piesní. Ježiš je snúbenec, ženích, ktorý sa zasnubuje s Cirkvou (Mt 9, 15; 22, 1 n.; 25, 1 n.; Ef 5, 22; 2 Kor 11, 2; Zjv 19, 7; 21, 2). Ján Krstiteľ je len jeho družbom a teší sa z jeho šťastia a lásky. Tak skromne označil svoju úlohu ako predchodca Mesiáša.

Jn 3,31-36 - Tieto verše sa zdajú byť úvahou samého evanjelistu. V skutočnosti sú to však skôr slová Pána Ježiša, ktoré povedal pri inej príležitosti a Ján ich sem pridal.