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Evanjelium podľa Marka

Biblia - Sväté písmo

(ELB - Nemecký - Elberfelder)

Mk 1, 1-45

1 Anfang des Evangeliums Jesu Christi, des Sohnes Gottes; 2 wie geschrieben steht in Jesaias, dem Propheten: "Siehe, ich sende meinen Boten vor deinem Angesicht her, der deinen Weg bereiten wird". 3 "Stimme eines Rufenden in der Wüste: Bereitet den Weg des Herrn, machet gerade seine Steige!" 4 Johannes kam und taufte in der Wüste und predigte die Taufe der Buße zur Vergebung der Sünden. 5 Und es ging zu ihm hinaus das ganze jüdische Land und alle Bewohner von Jerusalem; und sie wurden im Jordanflusse von ihm getauft, indem sie ihre Sünden bekannten. 6 Johannes aber war bekleidet mit Kamelhaaren und einem ledernen Gürtel um seine Lenden; und er aß Heuschrecken und wilden Honig. 7 Und er predigte und sagte: Es kommt nach mir, der stärker ist als ich, dessen ich nicht würdig bin, ihm gebückt den Riemen seiner Sandalen zu lösen. 8 Ich zwar habe euch mit Wasser getauft, er aber wird euch mit Heiligem Geiste taufen. 9 Und es geschah in jenen Tagen, da kam Jesus von Nazareth in Galiläa, und wurde von Johannes in dem Jordan getauft. 10 Und alsbald, als er von dem Wasser heraufstieg, sah er die Himmel sich teilen und den Geist wie eine Taube auf ihn herniederfahren. 11 Und eine Stimme geschah aus den Himmeln: Du bist mein geliebter Sohn, an dir habe ich Wohlgefallen gefunden. 12 Und alsbald treibt der Geist ihn hinaus in die Wüste. 13 Und er war vierzig Tage in der Wüste und wurde von dem Satan versucht; und er war unter den wilden Tieren, und die Engel dienten ihm. 14 Nachdem aber Johannes überliefert war, kam Jesus nach Galiläa, predigte das Evangelium des Reiches Gottes und sprach: 15 Die Zeit ist erfüllt, und das Reich Gottes ist nahe gekommen. Tut Buße und glaubet an das Evangelium. 16 Als er aber am See von Galiläa wandelte, sah er Simon und Andreas, Simons Bruder, die in dem See ein Netz hin-und herwarfen, denn sie waren Fischer. 17 Und Jesus sprach zu ihnen: Kommet mir nach, und ich werde euch zu Menschenfischern machen; 18 und alsbald verließen sie ihre Netze und folgten ihm nach. 19 Und von dannen ein wenig weitergehend, sah er Jakobus, den Sohn des Zebedäus, und seinen Bruder Johannes, auch sie im Schiffe, wie sie die Netze ausbesserten; 20 und alsbald rief er sie. Und sie ließen ihren Vater Zebedäus in dem Schiffe mit den Tagelöhnern und gingen weg, ihm nach. 21 Und sie gehen hinein nach Kapernaum. Und alsbald an dem Sabbath ging er in die Synagoge und lehrte. 22 Und sie erstaunten sehr über seine Lehre: denn er lehrte sie wie einer, der Gewalt hat, und nicht wie die Schriftgelehrten. 23 Und es war in ihrer Synagoge ein Mensch mit einem unreinen Geiste; 24 und er schrie auf und sprach: Laß ab! Was haben wir mit dir zu schaffen, Jesu, Nazarener? Bist du gekommen, uns zu verderben? Ich kenne dich, wer du bist: der Heilige Gottes. 25 Und Jesus bedrohte ihn und sprach: Verstumme und fahre aus von ihm! 26 Und der unreine Geist zerrte ihn und rief mit lauter Stimme und fuhr von ihm aus. 27 Und sie entsetzten sich alle, so daß sie sich untereinander befragten und sprachen: Was ist dies? Was ist dies für eine neue Lehre? Denn mit Gewalt gebietet er selbst den unreinen Geistern, und sie gehorchen ihm. 28 Und alsbald ging das Gerücht von ihm aus in die ganze Umgegend von Galiläa. 29 Und alsbald gingen sie aus der Synagoge und kamen in das Haus Simons und Andreas', mit Jakobus und Johannes. 30 Die Schwiegermutter Simons aber lag fieberkrank danieder; und alsbald sagen sie ihm von ihr. 31 Und er trat hinzu und richtete sie auf, indem er sie bei der Hand ergriff; und das Fieber verließ sie alsbald, und sie diente ihnen. 32 Als es aber Abend geworden war, als die Sonne unterging, brachten sie alle Leidenden und Besessenen zu ihm; 33 und die ganze Stadt war an der Tür versammelt. 34 Und er heilte viele, die an mancherlei Krankheiten leidend waren; und er trieb viele Dämonen aus und erlaubte den Dämonen nicht zu reden, weil sie ihn kannten. 35 Und frühmorgens, als es noch sehr dunkel war, stand er auf und ging hinaus und ging hin an einen öden Ort und betete daselbst. 36 Und Simon und die mit ihm waren, gingen ihm nach; 37 und als sie ihn gefunden hatten, sagen sie zu ihm: Alle suchen dich. 38 Und er spricht zu ihnen: Laßt uns anderswohin in die nächsten Flecken gehen, auf daß ich auch daselbst predige; denn dazu bin ich ausgegangen. 39 Und er predigte in ihren Synagogen in ganz Galiläa und trieb die Dämonen aus. 40 Und es kommt ein Aussätziger zu ihm, bittet ihn und kniet vor ihm nieder und spricht zu ihm: Wenn du willst, kannst du mich reinigen. 41 Jesus aber, innerlich bewegt, streckte die Hand aus, rührte ihn an und spricht zu ihm: Ich will; sei gereinigt. 42 Und während er redete, wich alsbald der Aussatz von ihm, und er war gereinigt. 43 Und er bedrohte ihn und schickte ihn alsbald fort und spricht zu ihm: 44 Siehe zu, sage niemand etwas; sondern gehe hin, zeige dich dem Priester und opfere für deine Reinigung, was Moses geboten hat, ihnen zu einem Zeugnis. 45 Er aber ging weg und fing an, es viel kundzumachen und die Sache auszubreiten, so daß er nicht mehr öffentlich in die Stadt gehen konnte; sondern er war draußen in öden Örtern, und sie kamen von allen Seiten zu ihm.

Mk 1, 1-45





JFB

Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

     1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God—By the "Gospel" of Jesus Christ here is evidently meant the blessed Story which our Evangelist is about to tell of His Life, Ministry, Death, Resurrection, and Glorification, and of the begun Gathering of Believers in His Name. The abruptness with which he announces his subject, and the energetic brevity with which, passing by all preceding events, he hastens over the ministry of John and records the Baptism and Temptation of Jesus—as if impatient to come to the Public Life of the Lord of glory—have often been noticed as characteristic of this Gospel—a Gospel whose direct, practical, and singularly vivid setting imparts to it a preciousness peculiar to itself. What strikes every one is, that though the briefest of all the Gospels, this is in some of the principal scenes of our Lord's history the fullest. But what is not so obvious is, that wherever the finer and subtler feelings of humanity, or the deeper and more peculiar hues of our Lord's character were brought out, these, though they should be lightly passed over by all the other Evangelists, are sure to be found here, and in touches of such quiet delicacy and power, that though scarce observed by the cursory reader, they leave indelible impressions upon all the thoughtful and furnish a key to much that is in the other Gospels. These few opening words of the Second Gospel are enough to show, that though it was the purpose of this Evangelist to record chiefly the outward and palpable facts of our Lord's public life, he recognized in Him, in common with the Fourth Evangelist, the glory of the Only-begotten of the Father.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

     2, 3. As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee— (Mal 3:1; Isa 40:3).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

     3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight—The second of these quotations is given by Matthew and Luke in the same connection, but they reserve the former quotation till they have occasion to return to the Baptist, after his imprisonment (Mt 11:10; Lu 7:27). (Instead of the words, "as it is written in the Prophets," there is weighty evidence in favor of the following reading: "As it is written in Isaiah the prophet." This reading is adopted by all the latest critical editors. If it be the true one, it is to be explained thus—that of the two quotations, the one from Malachi is but a later development of the great primary one in Isaiah, from which the whole prophetical matter here quoted takes its name. But the received text is quoted by IRENÆUS, before the end of the second century, and the evidence in its favor is greater in amount, if not in weight. The chief objection to it is, that if this was the true reading, it is difficult to see how the other one could have got in at all; whereas, if it be not the true reading, it is very easy to see how it found its way into the text, as it removes the startling difficulty of a prophecy beginning with the words of Malachi being ascribed to Isaiah.) For the exposition, see on Mt 3:1-6; Mt 3:11.

     Mr 1:9-11. BAPTISM OF CHRIST AND DESCENT OF THE SPIRIT UPON HIM IMMEDIATELY THEREAFTER. ( = Mt 3:13-17; Lu 3:21, 22).

     See on Mt 3:13-17.

     Mr 1:12, 13. TEMPTATION OF CHRIST. ( = Mt 4:1-11; Lu 4:1-13).

     See on Mt 4:1-11.

     Mr 1:14-20. CHRIST BEGINS HIS GALILEAN MINISTRY—CALLING OF SIMON AND ANDREW, JAMES AND JOHN.

     See on Mt 4:12-22.

     Mr 1:21-39. HEALING OF A DEMONIAC IN THE SYNAGOGUE OF CAPERNAUM AND THEREAFTER OF SIMON'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS—JESUS, NEXT DAY, IS FOUND IN A SOLITARY PLACE AT MORNING PRAYERS, AND IS ENTREATED TO RETURN, BUT DECLINES, AND GOES FORTH ON HIS FIRST MISSIONARY CIRCUIT. ( = Lu 4:31-44; Mt 8:14-17; 4:23-25).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

     21. And they went into Capernaum—(See on Mt 4:13).
      and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught—This should have been rendered, "straightway on the sabbaths He entered into the synagogue and taught," or "continued to teach." The meaning is, that as He began this practice on the very first sabbath after coming to settle at Capernaum, so He continued it regularly thereafter.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

     22. And they were astonished at his doctrine—or "teaching"—referring quite as much to the manner as the matter of it.
      for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes—See on Mt 7:28, 29.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

     23. And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit—literally, "in an unclean spirit"—that is, so entirely under demoniacal power that his personality was sunk for the time in that of the spirit. The frequency with which this character of "impurity" is ascribed to evil spirits—some twenty times in the Gospels—is not to be overlooked.
      and he cried out—as follows:


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

     24. Saying, Let us alone—or rather, perhaps, "ah!" expressive of mingled astonishment and terror.
      what have we to do with thee—an expression of frequent occurrence in the Old Testament (1Ki 17:18; 2Ki 3:13; 2Ch 35:21, &c.). It denotes entire separation of interests:—that is, "Thou and we have nothing in common; we want not Thee; what wouldst Thou with us?" For the analogous application of it by our Lord to His mother, see on Joh 2:4.
      thou Jesus of Nazareth—"Jesus, Nazarene!" an epithet originally given to express contempt, but soon adopted as the current designation by those who held our Lord in honor (Lu 18:37; Mr 16:6; Ac 2:22).
      art thou come to destroy us?—In the case of the Gadarene demoniac the question was, "Art Thou come hither to torment us before the time?" (Mt 8:29). Themselves tormentors and destroyers of their victims, they discern in Jesus their own destined tormentor and destroyer, anticipating and dreading what they know and feel to be awaiting them! Conscious, too, that their power was but permitted and temporary, and perceiving in Him, perhaps, the woman's Seed that was to bruise the head and destroy the works of the devil, they regard His approach to them on this occasion as a signal to let go their grasp of this miserable victim.
      I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God—This and other even more glorious testimonies to our Lord were given, as we know, with no good will, but in hope that, by the acceptance of them, He might appear to the people to be in league with evil spirits—a calumny which His enemies were ready enough to throw out against Him. But a Wiser than either was here, who invariably rejected and silenced the testimonies that came to Him from beneath, and thus was able to rebut the imputations of His enemies against Him (Mt 12:24-30). The expression, "Holy One of God," seems evidently taken from that Messianic Psalm (Ps 16:10), in which He is styled "Thine Holy One."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

     25. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him—A glorious word of command. BENGEL remarks that it was only the testimony borne to Himself which our Lord meant to silence. That he should afterwards cry out for fear or rage (Mr 1:26) He would right willingly permit.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,26:

     26. And when the unclean spirit had torn him—Luke (Lu 4:35) says, "When he had thrown him in the midst." Malignant cruelty—just showing what he would have done, if permitted to go farther: it was a last fling!
      and cried with a loud voice—the voice of enforced submission and despair.
      he came out of him—Luke (Lu 4:35) adds, "and hurt him not." Thus impotent were the malignity and rage of the impure spirit when under the restraint of "the Stronger than the strong one armed" (Lu 11:21, 22).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,27:

     27. What thing is this? what new doctrine—teaching
      is this?—The audience, rightly apprehending that the miracle was wrought to illustrate the teaching and display the character and glory of the Teacher, begin by asking what novel kind of teaching this could be, which was so marvellously attested.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

     28. And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee—rather, "the whole region of Galilee"; though some, as MEYER and ELLICOTT, explain it of the country surrounding Galilee.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

     29. And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue—so also in Lu 4:38.
      they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John—The mention of these four—which is peculiar to Mark—is the first of those traces of Peter's hand in this Gospel, of which we shall find many more. The house being his, and the illness and cure so nearly affecting himself, it is interesting to observe this minute specification of the number and names of the witnesses; interesting also as the first occasion on which the sacred triumvirate of Peter and James and John are selected from among the rest, to be a threefold cord of testimony to certain events in their Lord's life (see on Mr 5:37) —Andrew being present on this occasion, as the occurrence took place in his own house.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,30:

     30. But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever—Luke, as was natural in "the beloved physician" (Col 4:14), describes it professionally; calling it a "great fever," and thus distinguishing it from that lighter kind which the Greek physicians were wont to call "small fevers," as GALEN, quoted by WETSTEIN, tells us.
      and anon—immediately.
      they tell him of her—naturally hoping that His compassion and power towards one of His own disciples would not be less signally displayed than towards the demonized stranger in the synagogue.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,31:

     31. And he came and took her by the hand—rather, "And advancing, He took her," &c. The beloved physician again is very specific: "And He stood over her."
      and lifted her up—This act of condescension, most felt doubtless by Peter, is recorded only by Mark.
      and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them—preparing their sabbath-meal: in token both of the perfectness and immediateness of the cure, and of her gratitude to the glorious Healer.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,32:

     32. And at even, when the sun did set—so Mt 8:16. Luke (Lu 4:40) says it was setting.
      they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils—the demonized. From Lu 13:14 we see how unlawful they would have deemed it to bring their sick to Jesus for a cure during the sabbath hours. They waited, therefore, till these were over, and then brought them in crowds. Our Lord afterwards took repeated occasion to teach the people by example, even at the risk of His own life, how superstitious a straining of the sabbath rest this was.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,33:

     33. And all the city was gathered together at the door—of Peter's house; that is, the sick and those who brought them, and the wondering spectators. This bespeaks the presence of an eye-witness, and is one of those lively examples of word-painting so frequent in this Gospel.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

     34. And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils—In Mt 8:16 it is said, "He cast out the spirits with His word"; or rather, "with a word"—a word of command.
      and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him—Evidently they would have spoken, if permitted, proclaiming His Messiahship in such terms as in the synagogue; but once in one day, and that testimony immediately silenced, was enough. See on Mr 1:24. After this account of His miracles of healing, we have in Mt 8:17 this pregnant quotation, "That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying (Isa 53:4), Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

     35. And in the morning—that is, of the day after this remarkable sabbath; or, on the first day of the week. His choosing this day to inaugurate a new and glorious stage of His public work, should be noted by the reader.
      rising up a great while before day—"while it was yet night," or long before daybreak.
      he went out—all unperceived from Peter's house, where He slept.
      and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed—or, "continued in prayer." He was about to begin His first preaching and healing circuit; and as on similar solemn occasions (Lu 5:16; 6:12; 9:18, 28, 29; Mr 6:46), He spent some time in special prayer, doubtless with a view to it. What would one not give to have been, during the stillness of those grey morning hours, within hearing—not of His "strong crying and tears," for He had scarce arrived at the stage for that—but of His calm, exalted anticipations of the work which lay immediately before Him, and the outpourings of His soul about it into the bosom of Him that sent Him! He had doubtless enjoyed some uninterrupted hours of such communings with His heavenly Father ere His friends from Capernaum arrived in search of Him. As for them, they doubtless expected, after such a day of miracles, that the next day would witness similar manifestations. When morning came, Peter, loath to break in upon the repose of his glorious Guest, would await His appearance beyond the usual hour; but at length, wondering at the stillness, and gently coming to see where the Lord lay, he finds it—like the sepulchre afterwards—empty! Speedily a party is made up to go in search of Him, Peter naturally leading the way.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,36:

     36. And Simon and they that were with him followed after him—rather, "pressed after Him." Luke (Lu 4:42) says, "The multitudes sought after Him"; but this would be a party from the town. Mark, having his information from Peter himself, speaks only of what related directly to him. "They that were with him" would probably be Andrew his brother, James and John, with a few other choice brethren.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,37:

     37. And when they had found him—evidently after some search.
      they said unto him, All men seek for thee—By this time, "the multitudes" who, according to Luke (Lu 4:42), "sought after Him"—and who, on going to Peter's house, and there learning that Peter and a few more were gone in search of Him, had set out on the same errand—would have arrived, and "came unto Him and stayed Him, that He should not depart from them" (Lu 4:42); all now urging His return to their impatient townsmen.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

     38. And he said unto them, Let us go—or, according to another reading, "Let us go elsewhere."
      into the next towns—rather, "unto the neighboring village-towns"; meaning those places intermediate between towns and villages, with which the western side of the Sea of Galilee was studded.
      that I may preach there also; for therefore came I forth—not from Capernaum, as DE WETTE miserably interprets, nor from His privacy in the desert place, as MEYER, no better; but from the Father. Compare Joh 16:28, "I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world," &c.—another proof, by the way, that the lofty phraseology of the Fourth Gospel was not unknown to the authors of the others, though their design and point of view are different. The language in which our Lord's reply is given by Luke (Lu 4:43) expresses the high necessity under which, in this as in every other step of His work, He acted—"I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also; for therefore"—or, "to this end"—"am I sent." An act of self-denial it doubtless was, to resist such pleadings to return to Capernaum. But there were overmastering considerations on the other side.

     Mr 1:40-45. HEALING OF A LEPER. ( = Mt 8:1-4; Lu 5:12-16).

     See on Mt 8:1-4.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:
The Ministry of John the Baptist.

      1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;   2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.   3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.   4 John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.   5 And there went out unto him all the land of Judæa, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.   6 And John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey;   7 And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose.   8 I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.

      We may observe here,

      I. What the New Testament is--the divine testament, to which we adhere above all that is human; the new testament, which we advance above that which was old. It is the gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God, v. 1. 1. It is gospel; it is God's word, and is faithful and true; see Rev. xix. 9; xxi. 5; xxii. 6. It is a good word, and well worthy of all acceptation; it brings us glad tidings. 2. It is the gospel of Jesus Christ, the anointed Saviour, the Messiah promised and expected. The foregoing gospel began with the generation of Jesus Christ--that was but preliminary, this comes immediately to the business--the gospel of Christ. It is called his, not only because he is the Author of it, and it comes from him, but because he is the Subject of it, and it treats wholly concerning him. 3. This Jesus is the Son of God. That truth is the foundation on which the gospel is built, and which it is written to demonstrate; for is Jesus be not the Son of God, our faith is vain.

      II. What the reference of the New Testament is to the Old, and its coherence with it. The gospel of Jesus Christ begins, and so we shall find it goes on, just as it is written in the prophets (v. 2); for it saith no other things than those which the prophets and Moses said should come (Acts xxvi. 22), which was most proper and powerful for the conviction of the Jews, who believed the Old-Testament prophets to be sent of God and ought to have evidenced that they did so by welcoming the accomplishment of their prophecies in its season; but it is of use to us all, for the confirmation of our faith both in the Old Testament and in the New, for the exact harmony that there is between both shows that they both have the same divine original.

      Quotations are here borrowed from two prophecies--that of Isaiah, which was the longest, and that of Malachi, which was the latest (and there were above three hundred years between them), both of whom spoke to the same purport concerning the beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, in the ministry of John.

      1. Malachi, in whom we had the Old-Testament farewell, spoke very plainly (ch. iii. 1) concerning John Baptist, who was to give the New-Testament welcome. Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, v. 2. Christ himself had taken notice of this, and applied it to John (Matt. xi. 10), who was God's messenger, sent to prepare Christ's way.

      2. Isaiah, the most evangelical of all the prophets, begins the evangelical part of his prophecy with this, which points to the beginning of the gospel of Christ (Isa. xl. 3); The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, v. 3. Matthew had taken notice of this, and applied it to John, ch. iii. 3. But from these two put together here, we may observe, (1.) That Christ, in his gospel, comes among us, bringing with him a treasure of grace, and a sceptre of government. (2.) Such is the corruption of the world, that there is something to do to make room for him, and to remove that which gives not only obstruction, but opposition to his progress. (3.) When God sent his Son into the world, he took care, and when he sends him into the heart, he takes care, effectual care, to prepare his way before him; for the designs of his grace shall not be frustrated; nor may any expect the comforts of that grace, but such as, by conviction of sin and humiliation for it, are prepared for those comforts, and disposed to receive them. (4.) When the paths that were crooked, are made straight (the mistakes of the judgment rectified, and the crooked ways of the affections), then way is made for Christ's comforts. (5.) It is in a wilderness, for such this world is, that Christ's way is prepared, and theirs that follow him, like that which Israel passed through to Canaan. (6.) The messengers of conviction and terror, that come to prepare Christ's way, are God's messengers, whom he sends and will own, and must be received as such. (7.) They that are sent to prepare the way of the Lord, in such a vast howling wilderness as this is, have need to cry aloud, and not spare, and to lift up their voice like a trumpet.

      III. What the beginning of the New Testament was. The gospel began in John Baptist; for the law and the prophets were, until John, the only divine revelation, but then the kingdom of God began to be preached, Luke xvi. 16. Peter begins from the baptism of John, Acts i. 22. The gospel did not begin so soon as the birth of Christ, for he took time to increase in wisdom and stature, not so late as his entering upon his public ministry, but half a year before, when John began to preach the same doctrine that Christ afterward preached. His baptism was the dawning of the gospel day; for,

      1. In John's way of living there was the beginning of a gospel spirit; for it bespoke great self-denial, mortification of the flesh, a holy contempt of the world, and nonconformity to it, which may truly be called the beginning of the gospel of Christ in any soul, v. 6. He was clothed with camels' hair, not with soft raiment; was girt, not with a golden, but with a leathern girdle; and, in contempt of dainties and delicate things, his meat was locusts and wild honey. Note, The more we sit loose to the body, and live above the world, the better we are prepared for Jesus Christ.

      2. In John's preaching and baptizing there was the beginning of the gospel doctrines and ordinances, and the first fruits of them. (1.) He preached the remission of sins, which is the great gospel privilege; showed people their need of it, that they were undone without it, and that it might be obtained. (2.) He preached repentance, in order to it; he told people that there must be a renovation of their hearts and a reformation of their lives, that they must forsake their sins and turn to God, and upon those terms and no other, their sins should be forgiven. Repentance for the remission of sins, was what the apostles were commissioned to preach to all nations, Luke xxiv. 27. (3.) He preached Christ, and directed his hearers to expect him speedily to appear, and to expect great things from him. The preaching of Christ is pure gospel, and that was John Baptist's preaching, v. 7, 8. Like a true gospel minister, he preaches, [1.] The great pre-eminence Christ is advanced to; so high, so great, is Christ, that John, though one of the greatest that was born of women, thinks himself unworthy to be employed in the meanest office about him, even to stoop down, and untie his shoes. Thus industrious is he to give honour to him, and to bring others to do so too. [2.] The great power Christ is invested with; He comes after me in time, but he is mightier than I, mightier than the mighty ones of the earth, for he is able to baptize with the Holy Ghost; he can give the Spirit of God, and by him govern the spirits of men. [3.] The great promise Christ makes in his gospel to those who have repented, and have had their sins forgiven them; They shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost, shall be purified by his graces, and refreshed by his comforts. And, lastly, All those who received his doctrine, and submitted to his institution, he baptized with water, as the manner of the Jews was to admit proselytes, in token of their cleansing themselves by repentance and reformation (which were the duties required), and of God's cleansing them both by remission and by sanctification, which were the blessings promised. Now this was afterward to be advanced into a gospel ordinance, which John's using it was a preface to.

      3. In the success of John's preaching, and the disciples he admitted by baptism, there was the beginning of a gospel church. He baptized in the wilderness, and declined going into the cities; but there went out unto him all the land of Judea, and they of Jerusalem, inhabitants both of city and country, families of them, and were all baptized of him. They entered themselves his disciples, and bound themselves to his discipline; in token of which, they confessed their sins; he admitted them his disciples, in token of which, he baptized them. Here were the stamina of the gospel church, the dew of its youth from the womb of the morning, Ps. cx. 3. Many of these afterward became followers of Christ, and preachers of his gospel, and this grain of mustard-seed became a tree.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:
The Baptism of Jesus.

      9 And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.   10 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him:   11 And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.   12 And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness.   13 And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.

      We have here a brief account of Christ's baptism and temptation, which were largely related Matt. iii. and iv.

      I. His baptism, which was his first public appearance, after he had long lived obscurely in Nazareth. O how much hidden worth is there, which in this world is either lost in the dust of contempt and cannot be known, or wrapped up in the veil of humility and will not be known! But sooner or later it shall be known, as Christ's was.

      1. See how humbly he owned God, by coming to be baptized of John; and thus it became him to fulfil all righteousness. Thus he took upon him the likeness of sinful flesh, that, though he was perfectly pure and unspotted, yet he was washed as if he had been polluted; and thus for our sakes he sanctified himself, that we also might be sanctified, and be baptized with him, John xvii. 19.

      2. See how honourably God owned him, when he submitted to John's baptism. Those who justify God, and they are said to do, who were baptized with the baptism of John, he will glorify, Luke vii. 29, 30.

      (1.) He saw the heavens opened; thus he was owned to be the Lord from heaven, and had a glimpse of the glory and joy that were set before him, and secured to him, as the recompence of his undertaking. Matthew saith, The heavens were opened to him. Mark saith, He saw them opened. Many have the heavens opened to receive them, but they do not see it; Christ had not only a clear foresight of his sufferings, but of his glory too.

      (2.) He saw the Spirit like a dove descending upon him. Note, Then we may see heaven opened to us, when we perceive the Spirit descending and working upon us. God's good work in us is the surest evidence of his good will towards us, and his preparations for us. Justin Martyr says, that when Christ was baptized, a fire was kindled in Jordan: and it is an ancient tradition, that a great light shone round the place; for the Spirit brings both light and heat.

      (3.) He heard a voice which was intended for his encouragement to proceed in his undertaking, and therefore it is here expressed as directed to him, Thou art my beloved Son. God lets him know, [1.] That he loved him never the less for that low and mean estate to which he had now humbled himself; "Though thus emptied and made of no reputation, yet he is my beloved Son still." [2.] That he loved him much the more for that glorious and kind undertaking in which he had now engaged himself. God is well pleased in him, as referee of all matters in controversy between him and man; and so well pleased in him, as to be well pleased with us in him.

      II. His temptation. The good Spirit that descended upon him, led him into the wilderness, v. 12. Paul mentions it as a proof that he had his doctrine from God, and not from man--that, as soon as he was called, he went not to Jerusalem, but went into Arabia, Gal. i. 17. Retirement from the world is an opportunity of more free converse with God, and therefore must sometimes be chosen, for a while, even by those that are called to the greatest business. Mark observes this circumstance of his being in the wilderness--that he was with the wild beasts. It was an instance of his Father's care of him, that he was preserved from being torn in pieces by the wild beasts, which encouraged him the more that his Father would provide for him when he was hungry. Special protections are earnests of seasonable supplies. It was likewise an intimation to him of the inhumanity of the men of that generation, whom he was to live among--no better than wild beasts in the wilderness, nay abundantly worse. In that wilderness,

      1. The evil spirits were busy with him; he was tempted of Satan; not by any inward injections (the prince of this world had nothing in him to fasten upon), but by outward solicitations. Solicitude often gives advantages to the tempter, therefore two are better than one. Christ himself was tempted, not only to teach us, that it is no sin to be tempted, but to direct us whither to go for succour when we are tempted, even to him that suffered, being tempted; that he might experimentally sympathize with us when we are tempted.

      2. The good spirits were busy about him; the angels ministered to him, supplied him with what he needed, and dutifully attended him. Note, The ministration of the good angels about us, is matter of great comfort in reference to the malicious designs of the evil angels against us; but much more doth it befriend us, to have the indwelling of the spirit in our hearts, which they that have, are so born of God, that, as far as they are so, the evil one toucheth them not, much less shall be triumph over them.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:
The Opening of Christ's Ministry.

      14 Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God,   15 And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.   16 Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.   17 And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men.   18 And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed him.   19 And when he had gone a little further thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets.   20 And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after him.   21 And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught.   22 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.

      Here is, I. A general account of Christ's preaching in Galilee. John gives an account of his preaching in Judea, before this (ch. ii. and iii.), which the other evangelists had omitted, who chiefly relate what occurred in Galilee, because that was least known at Jerusalem. Observe,

      1. When Jesus began to preach in Galilee; After that John was put in prison. When he had finished his testimony, then Jesus began his. Note, The silencing of Christ's ministers shall not be the suppressing of Christ's gospel; if some be laid aside, others shall be raised up, perhaps mightier than they, to carry on the same work.

      2. What he preached; The gospel of the kingdom of God. Christ came to set up the kingdom of God among men, that they might be brought into subjection to it, and might obtain salvation in it; and he set it up by the preaching of his gospel, and a power going along with it.

      Observe, (1.) The great truths Christ preached; The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand. This refers to the Old Testament, in which the kingdom of the Messiah was promised, and the time fixed for the introducing of it. They were not so well versed in those prophecies, nor did they so well observe the signs of the times, as to understand it themselves, and therefore Christ gives them notice of it; "The time prefixed is now at hand; glorious discoveries of divine light, life, and love, are now to be made; a new dispensation far more spiritual and heavenly than that which you have hitherto been under, is now to commence." Note, God keeps time; when the time is fulfilled, the kingdom of God is at hand, for the vision is for an appointed time, which will be punctually observed, though it tarry past our time.

      (2.) The great duties inferred from thence. Christ gave them to understand the times, that they might know what Israel ought to do; they fondly expected the Messiah to appear in external pomp and power, not only to free the Jewish nation from the Roman yoke, but to make it have dominion over all its neighbours, and therefore thought, when that kingdom of God was at hand, they must prepare for war, and for victory and preferment, and great things in the world; but Christ tells them, in the prospect of that kingdom approaching, they must repent, and believe the gospel. They had broken the moral law, and could not be saved by a covenant of innocency, for both Jew and Gentile are concluded under guilt. They must therefore take the benefit of a covenant of grace, must submit to a remedial law, and this is it--repentance towards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. They had not made use of the prescribed preservatives, and therefore must have recourse to the prescribed restoratives. By repentance we must lament and forsake our sins, and by faith we must receive the forgiveness of them. By repentance we must give glory to our Creator whom we have offended; by faith we must give glory to our Redeemer who came to save us from our sins. Both these must go together; we must not think either that reforming our lives will save us without trusting in the righteousness and grace of Christ, or that trusting in Christ will save us without the reformation of our hearts and lives. Christ hath joined these two together, and let no man think to put them asunder. They will mutually assist and befriend each other. Repentance will quicken faith, and faith will make repentance evangelical; and the sincerity of both together must be evidenced by a diligent conscientious obedience to all God's commandments. Thus the preaching of the gospel began, and thus it continues; still the call is, Repent, and believe, and live a life of repentance and a life of faith.

      II. Christ appearing as a teacher, here is next his calling of disciples, v. 16-20. Observe, 1. Christ will have followers. If he set up a school, he will have scholars; if he set up his standard, he will have soldiers; if he preach, he will have hearers. He has taken an effectual course to secure this; for all that the Father has given him, shall, without fail, come to him. 2. The instruments Christ chose to employ in setting up his kingdom, were the weak and foolish things of the world; not called from the great sanhedrim, or the schools of the rabbin, but picked up from among the tarpaulins by the sea-side, that the excellency of the power might appear to be wholly of God, and not at all of them. 3. Though Christ needs not the help of man, yet he is pleased to make use of it in setting up his kingdom, that he might deal with us not in a formidable but in a familiar way, and that in his kingdom the nobles and governors may be of ourselves, Jer. xxxi. 21. 4. Christ puts honour upon those who, though mean in the world, are diligent in their business, and loving to one another; so those were, whom Christ called. He found them employed, and employed together. Industry and unity are good and pleasant, and there the Lord Jesus commands the blessing, even this blessing, Follow me. 5. The business of ministers is to fish for souls, and win them to Christ. The children of men, in their natural condition, are lost, wander endlessly in the great ocean of this world, and are carried down the stream of its course and way; they are unprofitable. Like leviathan in the waters, they play therein; and often, like the fishes of the sea, they devour one another. Ministers, in preaching the gospel, cast the net into the waters, Matt. xiii. 47. Some are enclosed and brought to shore, but far the greater number escape. Fishermen take great pains, and expose themselves to great perils, so do ministers; and they have need of wisdom. If many a draught brings home nothing, yet they must go on. 6. Those whom Christ called, must leave all, to follow him; and by his grace he inclines them to do so. Not that we must needs go out of the world immediately, but we must sit loose to the world, and forsake every thing that is inconsistent with our duty to Christ, and that cannot be kept without prejudice to our souls. Mark takes notice of James and John, that they left not only their father (which we had in Matthew), but the hired servants, whom perhaps they loved as their own brethren, being their fellow-labourers and pleasant comrades; not only relations, but companions, must be left for Christ, and old acquaintance. Perhaps it is an intimation of their care for their father; they did not leave him without assistance, they left the hired servants with him. Grotius thinks it is mentioned as an evidence that their calling was gainful to them, for it was worth while to keep servants in pay, to help them in it, and their hands would be much missed, and yet they left it.

      III. Here is a particular account of his preaching in Capernaum, one of the cities of Galilee; for though John Baptist chose to preach in a wilderness, and did well, and did good, yet it doth not therefore follow, that Jesus must do so too; the inclinations and opportunities of ministers may very much differ, and yet both be in the way of their duty, and both useful. Observe, 1. When Christ came into Capernaum, he straightway applied himself to his work there, and took the first opportunity of preaching the gospel. Those will think themselves concerned not to lose time, who consider what a deal of work they have to do, and what a little time to do it in. 2. Christ religiously observed the sabbath day, though not by tying himself up to the tradition of the elders, in all the niceties of the sabbath-rest, yet (which was far better) by applying himself to, and abounding in, the sabbath-work, in order to which the sabbath-rest was instituted. 3. Sabbaths are to be sanctified in religious assemblies, if we have opportunity; it is a holy day, and must be honoured with a holy convocation; this was the good old way, Acts xiii. 27; xv. 21. On the sabbath-day, pois sabbasin--on the sabbath-days; every sabbath-day, as duly as it returned, he went into the synagogue. 4. In religious assemblies on sabbath-days, the gospel is to be preached, and those to be taught, who are willing to learn the truth as it is in Jesus. 5. Christ was a non-such preacher; he did not preach as the scribes, who expounded the law of Moses by rote, as a school-boy says his lesson, but were neither acquainted with it (Paul himself, when a Pharisee, was ignorant of the law), nor affected with it; it came not from the heart, and therefore came not with authority. But Christ taught as one that had authority, as one that knew the mind of God, and was commissioned to declare it. 6. There is much in the doctrine of Christ, that is astonishing; the more we hear it, the more cause we shall see to admire it.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:
The Expulsion of Evil Spirits.

      23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,   24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.   25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him.   26 And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him.   27 And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him.   28 And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee.

      As soon as Christ began to preach, he began to work miracles for the confirmation of his doctrine; and they were such as intimated the design and tendency of his doctrine, which were to conquer Satan, and cure sick souls.

      In these verses, we have,

      I. Christ's casting the devil out of a man that was possessed, in the synagogue at Capernaum. This passage was not related in Matthew, but is afterward in Luke iv. 33. There was in the synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, en pneumati akatharto--in an unclean spirit; for the spirit had the man in his possession, and led him captive at his will. So the whole world is said to lie en to ponero--in the wicked one. And some have thought it more proper to say, The body is in the soul, because it is governed by it, than the soul in the body. He was in the unclean spirit, as a man is said to be in a fever, or in a frenzy, quite overcome by it. Observe, The devil is here called an unclean spirit, because he has lost all the purity of his nature, because he acts in direct opposition to the Holy Spirit of God, and because with his suggestions he pollutes the spirits of men. This man was in the synagogue; he did not come either to be taught or to be healed, but, as some think, to confront Christ and oppose him, and hinder people from believing on him. Now here we have,

      1. The rage which the unclean spirit expressed at Christ; He cried out, as one in an agony, at the presence of Christ, and afraid of being dislodged; thus the devils believe and tremble, have a horror of Christ, but no hope in him, nor reverence for him. We are told what he said, v. 24, where he doth not go about to capitulate with him, or make terms (so far was he from being in league or compact with him), but speaks as one that knew his doom. (1.) He calls him Jesus of Nazareth; for aught that appears, he was the first that called him so, and he did it with design to possess the minds of the people with low thoughts of him, because no good thing was expected out of Nazareth; and with prejudices against him as a Deceiver, because every body knew the Messiah must be of Bethlehem. (2.) Yet a confession is extorted from him--that he is the holy One of God, as was from the damsel that had the spirit of divination concerning the apostles--that they were the servants of the most high God, Acts xvi. 16, 17. Those who have only a notion of Christ--that he is the holy One of God, and have no faith in him, or love to him, go no further than the devil doth. (3.) He in effect acknowledgeth that Christ was too hard for him, and that he could not stand before the power of Christ; "Let us alone; for if thou take us to task, we are undone, thou canst destroy us." This is the misery of those wicked spirits, that they persist in their rebellion, and yet know it will end in their destruction. (4.) He desires to have nothing to do with Jesus Christ; for he despairs of being saved by him, and dreads being destroyed by him. "What have we to do with thee? If thou wilt let us alone, we will let thee alone." See whose language they speak, that say to the Almighty, Depart from us. This, being an unclean spirit, therefore hated and dreaded Christ, because he knew him to be a holy One; for the carnal mind is enmity against God, especially against his holiness.

      2. The victory which Jesus Christ obtained over the unclean spirit; for this purpose was the Son of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil, and so he makes it to appear; nor will he be turned back from prosecuting this war, either by his flatteries or by his menaces. It is in vain for Satan to beg and pray, Let us alone; his power must be broken, and the poor man must be relieved; and therefore, (1.) Jesus commands. As he taught, so he healed, with authority. Jesus rebuked him; he chid him and threatened him, imposed silence upon him; Hold thy peace; phimotheti--be muzzled. Christ has a muzzle for that unclean spirit when he fawns as well as when he barks; such acknowledgments of him as this was, Christ disdains, so far is he from accepting them. Some confess Christ to be the holy One of God, that under the cloak of that profession they may carry on malicious mischievous designs; but their confession is doubly an abomination to the Lord Jesus, as it sues in his name for a license to sin, and shall therefore be put to silence and shame. But this is not all, he must not only hold his peace, but he must come out of the man; this was it he dreaded--his being restrained from doing further mischief. But, (2.) The unclean spirit yields, for there is no remedy (v. 26); He tore him, put him into a strong convulsion; that one could have thought he had been pulled in pieces; when he would not touch Christ, in fury at him he grievously disturbed this poor creature. Thus, when Christ by his grace delivers poor souls out of the hands of Satan, it is not without a grievous toss and tumult in the soul; for that spiteful enemy will disquiet those whom he cannot destroy. He cried with a loud voice, to frighten the spectators, and make himself seem terrible, as if he would have it thought that though he was conquered, he was but just conquered, and that he hopes to rally again, and recover his ground.

      II. The impression which this miracle made upon the minds of the people, v. 27, 28.

      1. It astonished them that saw it; They were all amazed. It was evident, beyond contradiction, that the man was possessed--witness the tearing of him, and the loud voice with which the spirit cried; it was evident that he was forced out by the authority of Christ; this was surprising to them, and put them upon considering with themselves, and enquiring of one another, "What is this new doctrine? For it must certainly be of God, which is thus confirmed. He hath certainly an authority to command us, who hath ability to command even the unclean spirits, and they cannot resist him, but are forced to obey him." The Jewish exorcists pretended by charm or invocation to drive away evil spirits; but this was quite another thing, with authority he commands them. Surely it is our interest to make him our Friend, who has the control of infernal spirits.

      2. It raised his reputation among all that heard it; Immediately his fame spread abroad into the whole adjacent region of Galilee, which was a third part of the land of Canaan. The story was presently got into every one's mouth, and people wrote it to their friends all the country over, together with the remark made upon it, What new doctrine is this? So that it was universally concluded, that he was a Teacher come from God, and under that character he shone more bright than if he had appeared in all the external pomp and power which the Jews expected their Messiah to appear in; and thus he prepared his own way, now that John, who was his harbinger, was clapped up; and the fame of this miracle spread the further, because as yet the Pharisees, who envied his fame, and laboured to eclipse it, had not advanced their blasphemous suggestion, that he cast out devils by compact with the prince of the devils.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:
Christ Healing Many Patients.

      29 And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.   30 But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her.   31 And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them.   32 And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils.   33 And all the city was gathered together at the door.   34 And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him.   35 And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed.   36 And Simon and they that were with him followed after him.   37 And when they had found him, they said unto him, All men seek for thee.   38 And he said unto them, Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth.   39 And he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils.

      In these verses, we have,

      I. A particular account of one miracle that Christ wrought, in the cure of Peter's wife's mother, who was ill of a fever. This passage we had before, in Matthew. Observe,

      1. When Christ had done that which spread his fame throughout all parts, he did not then sit still, as some think that they may lie in bed when their name is up. No, he continued to do good, for that was it he aimed at, and not his own honour. Nay, those who are in reputation, had need be busy and careful to keep it up.

      2. When he came out of the synagogue, where he had taught and healed with a divine authority, yet he conversed familiarly with the poor fishermen that attended him, and did not think it below him. Let the same mind, the same lowly mind, be in us, that was in him.

      3. He went into Peter's house, probably invited thither to such entertainment as a poor fisherman could give him, and he accepted of it. The apostles left all for Christ; so far as that what they had should not hinder them from him, yet not so, but that they might use it for him.

      4. He cured his mother-in-law, who was sick. Wherever Christ comes, he comes to do good, and will be sure to pay richly for his entertainment. Observe, How complete the cure was; when the fever left her, it did not, as usual, leave her weak, but the same hand that healed her, strengthened her, so that she was able to minister to them; the cure is in order to that, to fit for action, that we may minister to Christ, and to those that are his for his sake.

      II. A general account of many cures he wrought--diseases healed, devils expelled. It was on the evening of the sabbath, when the sun did set, or was set; perhaps many scrupled bringing their sick to him, till the sabbath was over, but their weakness therein was no prejudice to them in applying to Christ. Though he proved it lawful to heal on the sabbath days, yet, if any stumbled at it, they were welcome at another time. Now observe,

      1. How numerous the patients were; All the city was gathered at the door, as beggars for a dole. That one cure in the synagogue occasioned this crowding after him. Others speeding well with Christ should quicken us in our enquiries after him. Now the Sun of righteousness rises with healing under his wings; to him shall the gathering of the people be. Observe, How Christ was flocked after in a private house, as well as in the synagogue; wherever he is, there let his servants, his patients, be. And in the evening of the sabbath, when the public worship is over, we must continue our attendance upon Jesus Christ; he healed, as Paul preached, publicly, and from house to house.

      2. How powerful the Physician was; he healed all that were brought to him, though ever so many. Nor was it some one particular disease, that Christ set up for the cure of, but he healed those that were sick of divers diseases, for his word was a panpharmacon--a salve for every sore. And that miracle particularly which he wrought in the synagogue, he repeated in the house at night; for he cast out many devils, and suffered not the devils to speak, for he made them know who he was, and that silenced them. Or, He suffered them not to say that they knew him (so it may be read); he would not permit any more of them to say, as they did (v. 24), I know thee, who thou art.

      III. His retirement to his private devotion (v. 35); He prayed, prayed alone; to set us an example of secret prayer. Though as God he was prayed to, as man he prayed. Though he was glorifying God, and doing good, in his public work, yet he found time to be alone with his Father; and thus it became him to fulfil all righteousness. Now observe,

      1. The time when Christ prayed. (1.) It was in the morning, the morning after the sabbath day. Note, When a sabbath day is over and past, we must not think that we may intermit our devotion till the next sabbath: no, though we go not to the synagogue, we must go to the throne of grace, every day in the week; and the morning after the sabbath particularly, that we may preserve the good impressions of the day. This morning was the morning of the first day of the week, which afterward he sanctified, and made remarkable, by another sort of rising early. (2.) It was early, a great while before day. When others were asleep in their beds, he was praying, as a genuine Son of David, who seeks God early, and directs his prayer in the morning; nay, and at midnight will rise to give thanks. It has been said, The morning is a friend to the Muses--Aurora Musis amica; and it is no less so to the Graces. When our spirits are most fresh and lively, then we should take time for devout exercises. He that is the first and best, ought to have the first and best.

      2. The place where he prayed; He departed into a solitary place, either out of town, or some remote garden or out-building. Though he was in no danger of distraction, or of temptation to vain-glory, yet he retired, to set us an example to his own rule, When thou prayest enter into thy closet. Secret prayer must be made secretly. Those that have the most business in public, and of the best kind, must sometimes be alone with God; must retire into solitude, there to converse with God, and keep up communion with him.

      IV. His return to his public work. The disciples thought they were up early, but found their Master was up before them, and they enquired which way he went, followed him to his solitary place, and there found him at prayer, v. 36, 37. They told him that he was much wanted, that there were a great many patients waiting for him; All men seek for thee. They were proud that their Master was become so popular already, and would have him appear in public, yet more in that place, because it was their own city; and we are apt to be partial to the places we know and are interested in. "No," saith Christ, "Capernaum must not have the monopoly of the Messiah's preaching and miracles. Let us go into the next towns, the villages that lie about here, that I may preach there also, and work miracles there, for therefore came I forth, not to be constantly resident in one place, but to go about doing good." Even the inhabitants of the villages in Israel shall rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord, Judg. v. 11. Observe, Christ had still an eye to the end wherefore he came forth, and closely pursued that; nor will he be drawn by importunity, or the persuasions of his friends, to decline from that; for (v. 39) he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and, to illustrate and confirm his doctrine, he cast out devils. Note, Christ's doctrine is Satan's destruction.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:
The Healing of a Leper.

      40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.   41 And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou clean.   42 And as soon as he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed.   43 And he straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away;   44 And saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man: but go thy way, show thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.   45 But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.

      We have here the story of Christ's cleansing a leper, which we had before, Matt. viii. 2-4. It teaches us,

      1. How to apply ourselves to Christ; come as this leper did, (1.) With great humility; this leper came beseeching him, and kneeling down to him (v. 40); whether giving divine honour to him as God, or rather a less degree of respect as a great Prophet, it teaches us that those who would receive grace and mercy from Christ, must ascribe honour and glory to Christ, and approach to him with humility and reverence. (2.) With a firm belief of his power; Thou canst make me clean. Though Christ's outward appearance was but mean, yet he had this faith in his power, which implies his belief that he was sent of God. He believes it with application, not only in general, Thou cast do every thing (as John xi. 22), but, Thou cast make me clean. Note, What we believe of the power of Christ we must bring home to our particular case; Thou canst do this for me. (3.) With submission to the will of Christ; Lord, if thou wilt. Not as if he had any doubt of Christ's readiness in general to help the distressed, but, with the modesty that became a poor petitioner, he refers his own particular case to him.

      2. What to expect from Christ; that according to our faith it shall be to us. His address is not in the form of prayer, yet Christ answered it as a request. Note, Affectionate professions of faith in Christ, and resignations to him, are the most prevailing petitions for mercy from him, and shall speed accordingly. (1.) Christ was moved with compassion. This is added here, in Mark, to show that Christ's power is employed by his pity for the relief of poor souls; that his reasons are fetched from within himself, and we have nothing in us to recommend us to his favour, but our misery makes us the objects of his mercy. And what he does for us he does with all possible tenderness. (2.) He put forth his hand, and touched him. He exerted his power, and directed it to this creature. In healing souls, Christ toucheth them, 1 Sam. x. 26. When the queen toucheth for the evil, she saith, I touch, God heals; but Christ toucheth and healeth too. (3.) He said, I will, be thou clean. Christ's power was put forth in and by a word, to signify in what way Christ would ordinarily work spiritual cures; He sends his word and heals, Ps. cvii. 20; John xv. 3; xvii. 17. The poor leper put an if upon the will of Christ; If thou wilt; but that doubt is soon put out of doubt; I will. Christ most readily wills favours to those that most readily refer themselves to his will. He was confident of Christ's power; Thou canst make me clean; and Christ will show how much his power is drawn out into act by the faith of his people, and therefore speaks the word as one having authority, Be thou clean. And power accompanied this word, and the cure was perfect in an instant; Immediately his leprosy vanished, and there remained no more sign of it, v. 42.

      3. What to do when we have received mercy from Christ. We must with his favours receive his commands. When Christ had cured him, he strictly charged him; the word here is very significant, embrimesamenos--graviter interminatus--prohibiting with threats. I am apt to think that this refers not to the directions he gave him to conceal it (v. 44), for those are mentioned by themselves; but that this was such a charge as he gave to the impotent man whom he cured, John v. 14, Sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee; for the leprosy was ordinarily the punishment of some particular sinners, as in Miriam's, Gehazi's, and Uzziah's, case; now, when Christ healed him, he warned him, he threatened him with the fatal consequence of it if he should return to sin again. He also appointed him, (1.) To show himself to the priest, that the priest by his own judgment of this leper might be a witness for Christ, that he was the Messiah, Matt. xi. 5. (2.) Till he had done that, not to say any thing of it to any man: this is an instance of the humility of Christ and his self-denial, that he did not seek his own honour, did not strive or cry, Isa. xlii. 2. And it is an example to us, not to seek our own glory, Prov. xxv. 27. He must not proclaim it, because that would much increase the crowd that followed Christ, which he thought was too great already; not as if he were unwilling to do good to all, to as many as came; but he would do it with as little noise as might be, would have no offence given to the government, no disturbance of the public peace, not any thing done that looked like ostentation, or an affecting of popular applause. What to think of the leper's publishing it, and blazing it abroad, I know not; the concealment of the good characters and good works of good men better become them than their friends; nor are we always bound by the modest commands of humble men. The leper ought to have observed his orders; yet, no doubt, it was with a good design that he proclaimed the cure, and it had no other ill effect than that it increased the multitudes which followed Christ, to that degree, that he could no more openly enter into the city; not upon the account of persecution (there was no danger of that yet,) but because the crowd was so great, that the streets would not hold them, which obliged him to go into desert places, to a mountain (ch. iii. 13), to the sea-side, ch. iv. 1. This shows how expedient it was for us, that Christ should go away, and send the Comforter, for his bodily presence could be but in one place at a time; and those that came to him from every quarter, could not get near him; but by his spiritual presence he is with his people wherever they are, and comes to them to every quarter.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

1 sn By the time Mark wrote, the word gospel had become a technical term referring to the preaching about Jesus Christ and God's saving power accomplished through him for all who believe (cf. Rom 1:16).

2 tn The genitive in the phrase τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (tou euangeliou Ihsou Cristou, "the gospel of Jesus Christ") could be translated as either a subjective genitive ("the gospel which Jesus brings [or proclaims]") or an objective genitive ("the gospel about Jesus Christ"). Either is grammatically possible. This is possibly an instance of a plenary genitive (see ExSyn 119-21; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, §§36-39). If so, an interplay between the two concepts is intended: The gospel which Jesus proclaims is in fact the gospel about himself.

3 tc א* Θ 28 l2211 pc sams Or lack υἱοῦ θεοῦ (Juiou qeou, "son of God"), while virtually all the rest of the witnesses have the words (A Ë1,13 33 Ï also have τοῦ [tou] before θεοῦ), so the evidence seems to argue for the authenticity of the words. Most likely, the words were omitted by accident in some witnesses, since the last four words of v. 1, in uncial script, would have looked like this: iu_c_r_u_u_u_q_u_. With all the successive upsilons an accidental deletion is likely. Further, the inclusion of υἱοῦ θεοῦ here finds its complement in 15:39, where the centurion claims that Jesus was υἱὸς θεοῦ (Juios qeou, "son of God"). Even though א is in general one of the best NT mss, its testimony is not quite as preeminent in this situation. There are several other instances in which it breaks up chains of genitives ending in ου (cf., e.g., Acts 28:31; Col 2:2; Heb 12:2; Rev 12:14; 15:7; 22:1), showing that there is a significantly higher possibility of accidental scribal omission in a case like this. This christological inclusio parallels both Matthew ("Immanuel...God with us" in 1:23/"I am with you" in 28:20) and John ("the Word was God" in 1:1/"My Lord and my God" in 20:28), probably reflecting nascent christological development and articulation.

sn The first verse of Mark's Gospel appears to function as a title: The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. It is not certain, however, whether Mark intended it to refer to the entire Gospel, to the ministry of John the Baptist, or through the use of the term beginning (ἀρχή, arch) to allude to Genesis 1:1 (in the Greek Bible, LXX). The most likely option is that the statement as a whole is an allusion to Genesis 1:1 and that Mark is saying that with the "good news" of the coming of Christ, God is commencing a "new beginning."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

4 tc Instead of "in Isaiah the prophet" the majority of mss read "in the prophets" (A W Ë13 Ï Irlat). Except for Irenaeus (2nd century), the earliest evidence for this is thus from the 5th (or possibly late 4th) century (W A). The difficulty of Irenaeus is that he wrote in Greek but has been preserved largely in Latin. His Greek remains have "in Isaiah the prophet." Only the later Latin translation has "in the prophets." The KJV reading is thus in harmony with the majority of late mss. On the other hand, the witnesses for "in Isaiah the prophet" (either with the article before Isaiah or not) are early and geographically widespread: א B D L Δ Θ Ë1 33 565 700 892 1241 2427 al syp co Ir. This evidence runs deep into the 2nd century, is widespread, and is found in the most important Alexandrian, Western, and Caesarean witnesses. The "Isaiah" reading has a better external pedigree in every way. It has the support of the earliest and best witnesses from all the texttypes that matter. Moreover it is the harder reading, since the quotation in the first part of the verse appears to be from Exod 23:20 and Mal 3:1, with the quotation from Isa 40:3 coming in the next verse. The reading of the later mss seems motivated by a desire to resolve this difficulty.

5 sn The opening lines of the quotation are from Exod 23:20; Mal 3:1. Here is the forerunner who points the way to the arrival of God's salvation. His job is to prepare and guide the people, as the cloud did for Israel in the desert.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

6 sn This call to "make his paths straight" in this context is probably an allusion to preparation through repentance.

7 sn A quotation from Isa 40:3.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,4:

8 tn Or "desert."

9 tn While Matthew and Luke consistently use the noun βαπτίστης (baptisths, "[the] Baptist") to refer to John, as a kind of a title, Mark prefers the substantival participle ὁ βαπτίζων (Jo baptizwn, "the one who baptizes, the baptizer") to describe him (only twice does he use the noun [Mark 6:25; 8:28]).

10 sn A baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins was a call for preparation for the arrival of the Lord's salvation. To participate in this baptism was a recognition of the need for God's forgiveness with a sense that one needed to live differently as a response to it.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,5:

11 tn Grk "And the whole Judean countryside." Mark uses the Greek conjunction καί (kai) at numerous places in his Gospel to begin sentences and paragraphs. This practice is due to Semitic influence and reflects in many cases the use of the Hebrew ו (vav) which is used in OT narrative, much as it is here, to carry the narrative along. Because in contemporary English style it is not acceptable to begin every sentence with "and," καί was often left untranslated or rendered as "now," "so," "then," or "but" depending on the context. When left untranslated it has not been noted. When given an alternative translation, this is usually indicated by a note.

12 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

13 tn Grk "they were being baptized by him." The passive construction has been rendered as active in the translation for the sake of English style.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,6:

14 sn John's lifestyle was in stark contrast to many of the religious leaders of Jerusalem who lived in relative ease and luxury. While his clothing and diet were indicative of someone who lived in the desert, they also depicted him in his role as God's prophet (cf. Zech 13:4); his appearance is similar to the Prophet Elijah (2 Kgs 1:8). Locusts and wild honey were a common diet in desert regions and locusts (dried insects) are listed in Lev 11:22 among the "clean" foods.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,7:

15 tn Grk "proclaimed, saying." The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

16 tn Grk "of whom I am not worthy."

sn The humility of John is evident in the statement I am not worthy. This was considered one of the least worthy tasks of a slave, and John did not consider himself worthy to do even that for the one to come, despite the fact he himself was a prophet.

17 tn The term refers to the leather strap or thong used to bind a sandal. This is often viewed as a collective singular and translated as a plural, "the straps of his sandals," but it may be more emphatic to retain the singular here.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:

18 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "now" to indicate the transition to a new topic.

19 map For location see Map1-D3; Map2-C2; Map3-D5; Map4-C1; Map5-G3.

20 tn "River" is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,10:

21 tn Grk "and immediately coming up out of the water, he saw." The present participle has been translated temporally, with the subject (Jesus) specified for clarity.

22 tn Or "sky." The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated "sky" or "heaven," depending on the context. The same word is used in v. 11.

23 sn The phrase like a dove is a descriptive comparison. The Spirit is not a dove, but descended like one in some sort of bodily representation.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,11:

24 tn Grk "my beloved Son," or "my Son, the beloved [one]." The force of ἀγαπητός (agaphtos) is often "pertaining to one who is the only one of his or her class, but at the same time is particularly loved and cherished" (L&N 58.53; cf. also BDAG 7 s.v. 1).

25 tn Or "with you I am well pleased."

sn The allusions in the remarks of the text recall Ps 2:7a; Isa 42:1 and either Isa 41:8 or, less likely, Gen 22:12,16. God is marking out Jesus as his chosen one (the meaning of "[in you I take] great delight"), but it may well be that this was a private experience that only Jesus and John saw and heard (cf. John 1:32-33).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,13:

26 sn The forty days may allude to the experience of Moses (Exod 34:28), Elijah (1 Kgs 19:8, 15), or David and Goliath (1 Sam 17:16).

27 tn Grk "And he."

28 tn Grk "were serving him," "were ministering to him."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:

29 tn Or "arrested," "taken into custody" (see L&N 37.12).

30 tc Most witnesses, especially later ones (A D W Ï lat), have τῆς βασιλείας (ths basileias) between τὸ εὐαγγέλιον (to euangelion) and τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou): "the gospel of the kingdom of God." On the one hand, it is perhaps possible that τῆς βασιλείας was omitted to conform the expression to that which is found in the epistles (cf. Rom 1:1; 15:16; 2 Cor 11:7; 1 Thess 2:2, 8, 9; 1 Pet 4:17). On the other hand, this expression, "the gospel of God," occurs nowhere else in the Gospels, while "the gospel of the kingdom" is a Matthean expression (Matt 4:23; 9:35; 24:14), and "kingdom of God" is pervasive in the synoptic Gospels (occurring over 50 times). Scribes would thus be more prone to add τῆς βασιλείας than to omit it. Further, the external support for the shorter reading (א B L Θ Ë1,13 28* 33 565 579 892 2427 sa) is significantly stronger than that for the longer reading. There is little doubt, therefore, that the shorter reading is authentic.

31 tn The genitive in the phrase τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ (to euangelion tou qeou, "the gospel of God") could be translated as either a subjective genitive ("the gospel which God brings") or an objective genitive ("the gospel about God"). Either is grammatically possible. This is possibly an instance of a plenary genitive (see ExSyn 119-21; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, §§36-39). If so, an interplay between the two concepts is intended: The gospel which God brings is in fact the gospel about himself.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,15:

32 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

33 sn The kingdom of God is a reference to the sovereign activity of God as he rules over his creation and brings his plans to realization.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,16:

34 sn This is a parenthetical comment by the author.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,17:

35 tn The Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, thus "people."

sn The kind of fishing envisioned was net - not line - fishing (cf. v. 16; cf. also BDAG 55 s.v. ἀμφιβάλλω, ἀμφίβληστρον) which involved a circular net that had heavy weights around its perimeter. The occupation of fisherman was labor-intensive. The imagery of using a lure and a line (and waiting for the fish to strike) is thus foreign to this text. Rather, the imagery of a fisherman involved much strain, long hours, and often little results. Jesus' point may have been one or more of the following: the strenuousness of evangelism, the work ethic that it required, persistence and dedication to the task (often in spite of minimal results), the infinite value of the new "catch" (viz., people), and perhaps an eschatological theme of snatching people from judgment (cf. W. L. Lane, Mark [NICNT], 67). If this last motif is in view, then catching people is the opposite of catching fish: The fish would be caught, killed, cooked, and eaten; people would be caught so as to remove them from eternal destruction and to give them new life.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,18:

36 sn The expression followed him pictures discipleship, which means that to learn from Jesus is to follow him as the guiding priority of one's life.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,19:

37 tn Or "a boat." The phrase ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ (en tw ploiw) can either refer to a generic boat, some boat (as it seems to do in Matt 4:21); or it can refer to "their" boat, implying possession. Mark assumes a certain preunderstanding on the part of his readers about the first four disciples and hence the translation "their boat" is justified (cf. also v. 20 in which the "hired men" indicates that Zebedee's family owned the boats).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

38 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "then" to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

39 sn Capernaum was a town located on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region, and it became the hub of operations for Jesus' Galilean ministry.

map For location see Map1-D2; Map2-C3; Map3-B2.

40 tn The Greek word εὐθύς (euqus, often translated "immediately" or "right away") has not been translated here. It sometimes occurs with a weakened, inferential use (BDAG 406 s.v. 2), not contributing significantly to the flow of the narrative. For further discussion, see R. J. Decker, Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect (SBG 10), 73-77.

41 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

42 sn The synagogue was a place for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (cf. Luke 8:41). Though its origin is not entirely clear, it seems to have arisen in the postexilic community during the intertestamental period. A town could establish a synagogue if there were at least ten men. In normative Judaism of the NT period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present. (See the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2.) First came the law, then the prophets, then someone was asked to speak on the texts. Jesus undoubtedly took the opportunity on this occasion to speak about his person and mission, and its relationship to Old Testament fulfillment.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

43 tn Grk "They."

44 sn Jesus' teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim; he taught with authority. A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one's point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.

45 tn Or "the scribes." The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as "scribe" does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean "professional copyist," if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus "expert in the law" comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

46 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.

47 tn Grk "he cried out, saying." The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

48 tn Grk "What to us and to you?" This is an idiom meaning, "We have nothing to do with one another," or "Why bother us!" The phrase τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (ti Jhmin kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the OT had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say "What to me and to you?" meaning, "What have I done to you that you should do this to me?" (Judg 11:12, 2 Chr 35:21, 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his own, he could say to the one asking him, "What to me and to you?" meaning, "That is your business, how am I involved?" (2 Kgs 3:13, Hos 14:8). Option (1) implies hostility, while option (2) merely implies disengagement. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: "Leave me alone...." For a very similar expression see Lk 8:28 and (in a different context) John 2:4.

49 sn The confession of Jesus as the Holy One here is significant, coming from an unclean spirit. Jesus, as the Holy One of God, who bears God's Spirit and is the expression of holiness, comes to deal with uncleanness and unholiness.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

50 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "but" to indicate the contrast present in this context.

51 tn Grk "rebuked him, saying." The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

52 sn The command Come out of him! is an example of Jesus' authority (see v. 32). Unlike other exorcists, Jesus did not use magical incantations nor did he invoke anyone else's name.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

53 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

54 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "now" to indicate the transition to a new topic.

55 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,30:

56 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

57 tn Grk "him"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,31:

58 tn The imperfect verb is taken ingressively here.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

59 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

60 sn Note how the author distinguishes healing from exorcism here, implying that the two are not identical.

61 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "but" to indicate the contrast present in this context.

62 sn Why Jesus would not permit the demons to speak is much discussed. Two possibilities are (1) the mere source of the testimony (demonic) and (2) that the title, with its political implications, may have had elements that Jesus wished to avoid until the full nature of his mission was clarified.

63 tc The mss vary on what is read at the end of v. 34. Some have "they knew him to be the Christ," with various Greek constructions (ᾔδεισαν αὐτὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι [hdeisan auton Criston einai] in B L W Θ Ë1 28 33vid 565 2427 al; ᾔδεισαν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι [hdeisan ton Criston auton einai] in [א2] C [Ë13 700] 892 1241 [1424] pc); codex D has "they knew him and he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons," reproducing exactly the first half of the verse. These first two longer readings are predictable expansions to an enticingly brief statement; the fact that there are significant variations on the word order and presence or absence of τόν argues against their authenticity as well. D's reading is a palpable error of sight. The reading adopted in the translation is supported by א* A 0130 Ï lat. This support, though hardly overwhelming in itself, in combination with strong internal evidence, renders the shorter reading fairly certain.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

64 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "then" to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

65 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

66 tn The imperfect προσηύχετο (proshuceto) implies some duration to the prayer.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

67 tn Grk "And he said to them."

68 tn Grk "Because for this purpose I have come forth."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,39:

69 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

70 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:

71 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as "now" to indicate the transition to a new topic.

72 sn The ancient term for leprosy covers a wider array of conditions than what we call leprosy today. A leper was totally ostracized from society until he was declared cured (Lev 13:45-46).

73 tn This is a third class condition. The report portrays the leper making no presumptions about whether Jesus will heal him or not.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,41:

74 tc The reading found in almost the entire NT ms tradition is σπλαγχνισθείς (splancnisqei", "moved with compassion"). Codex Bezae (D), {1358}, and a few Latin mss (a ff2 r1*) here read ὀργισθείς (ojrgisqei", "moved with anger"). It is more difficult to account for a change from "moved with compassion" to "moved with anger" than it is for a copyist to soften "moved with anger" to "moved with compassion," making the decision quite difficult. B. M. Metzger (TCGNT 65) suggests that "moved with anger" could have been prompted by 1:43, "Jesus sent the man away with a very strong warning." It also could have been prompted by the man's seeming doubt about Jesus' desire to heal him (v. 40). As well, it is difficult to explain why scribes would be prone to soften the text here but not in Mark 3:5 or 10:14 (where Jesus is also said to be angry or indignant). Thus, in light of diverse mss supporting "moved with compassion," and at least a plausible explanation for ὀργισθείς as arising from the other reading, it is perhaps best to adopt σπλαγχνισθείς as the original reading. Nevertheless, a decision in this case is not easy. For the best arguments for ὀργισθείς, however, see M. A. Proctor, "The 'Western' Text of Mark 1:41: A Case for the Angry Jesus" (Ph.D. diss., Baylor University, 1999).

75 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

76 sn Touched. This touch would have rendered Jesus ceremonially unclean (Lev 14:46; also Mishnah, m. Nega'im 3.1; 11.1; 12.1; 13.6-12).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,43:

77 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

78 tn Grk "him"; the referent (the man who was healed) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,44:

79 tn Grk "And after warning him, he immediately sent him away and told him."

80 sn The silence ordered by Jesus was probably meant to last only until the cleansing took place with the priests and sought to prevent Jesus' healings from becoming the central focus of the people's reaction to him. See also 1:34; 3:12; 5:43; 7:36; 8:26, 30; and 9:9 for other cases where Jesus asks for silence concerning him and his ministry.

81 sn On the phrase bring the offering that Moses commanded see Lev 14:1-32.

82 tn Or "as an indictment against them"; or "as proof to the people." This phrase could be taken as referring to a positive witness to the priests, a negative testimony against them, or as a testimony to the community that the man had indeed been cured. In any case, the testimony shows that Jesus is healing and ministering to those in need.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,45:

83 tn Grk "he"; the referent (the man who was healed) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

84 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

85 tn Grk "and"; καί (kai) often has a mildly contrastive force, as here.

86 tn The imperfect verb has been translated iteratively.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

The beginning (αρχη). There is no article in the Greek. It is possible that the phrase served as a heading or title for the paragraph about the ministry of the Baptist or as the superscription for the whole Gospel (Bruce) placed either by Mark or a scribe. And then the Gospel of Jesus Christ means the Message about Jesus Christ (objective genitive). The word Gospel here (ευαγγελιον) comes close to meaning the record itself as told by Mark. Swete notes that each writer has a different starting point (αρχη). Mark, as the earliest form of the evangelic tradition, begins with the work of the Baptist, Matthew with the ancestry and birth of the Messiah, Luke with the birth of the Baptist, John with the Preincarnate Logos, Paul with the foundation of each of the churches (Php 4:15).

The Son of God (Hυιου θεου). Aleph 28, 255 omit these words, but B, D, L, have them and the great mass of the manuscripts have υιου του θεου. If this is a heading added to what Mark wrote, the heading may have existed early in two forms, one with, one without "Son of God." If Mark wrote the words, there is no reason to doubt the genuineness since he uses the phrase elsewhere.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

In Isaiah, the prophet (εν τω Εσαια τω προφητη). The quotation comes from Mal 3:1 and Isa 40:3. The Western and Neutral classes read Isaiah, the Alexandrian and Syrian, "the prophets," an evident correction because part of it is from Malachi. But Isaiah is mentioned as the chief of the prophets. It was common to combine quotations from the prophets in testimonia and catenae (chains of quotations). This is Mark's only prophetic quotation on his own account (Bruce).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

The voice of one crying (φονη βοωντος). God is coming to his people to deliver them from their captivity in Babylon. So the prophet cries like a voice in the wilderness to make ready for the coming of God. When the committee from the Sanhedrin came to ask John who he was, he used this very language of Isaiah (Joh 1:23). He was only a voice, but we can still hear the echo of that voice through the corridor of the centuries.

Paths straight (ευθειας τας τριβους). Automobile highways today well illustrate the wonderful Persian roads for the couriers of the king and then for the king himself. The Roman Empire was knit together by roads, some of which survive today. John had a high and holy mission as the forerunner of the Messiah.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,4:

John came (εγενετο Ιωανης). His coming was an epoch (εγενετο), not a mere event (ην). His coming was in accordance with the prophetic picture (καθως, 1:2). Note the same verb about John in Joh 1:6. The coming of John the Baptizer was the real beginning of the spoken message about Christ. He is described as

the baptizing one (ο απτιζων) in the wilderness (εν τη ερημω). The baptizing took place in the River Jordan (Mr 1:5,9) which was included in the general term the wilderness or the deserted region of Judea.

Preached the baptism of repentance (κηρυσσων βαπτισμα μετανοιας). Heralded a repentance kind of baptism (genitive case, genus case), a baptism marked by repentance. See on Mt 3:2 for discussion of repent, an exceedingly poor rendering of John's great word μετανοιας. He called upon the Jews to change their minds and to turn from their sins, "confessing their sins" (εξομολογουμενο τας αμαρτιας αυτων). See Mt 3:16. The public confessions produced a profound impression as they would now.

Unto remission of sins (εις αφεσιν αμαρτιων). This is a difficult phrase to translate accurately. Certainly John did not mean that the baptism was the means of obtaining the forgiveness of their sins or necessary to the remission of sins. The trouble lies in the use of εις which sometimes is used when purpose is expressed, but sometimes when there is no such idea as in Mt 10:41 and Mt 12:41. Probably "with reference to" is as good a translation here as is possible. The baptism was on the basis of the repentance and confession of sin and, as Paul later explained (Ro 6:4), was a picture of the death to sin and resurrection to new life in Christ. This symbol was already in use by the Jews for proselytes who became Jews. John is treating the Jewish nation as pagans who need to repent, to confess their sins, and to come back to the kingdom of God. The baptism in the Jordan was the objective challenge to the people.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,5:

Then went out unto him (εξεπορευετο προς αυτον). Imperfect indicative describing the steady stream of people who kept coming to the baptism (εβαπτιζοντο, imperfect passive indicative, a wonderful sight).

In the river Jordan (εν τω Ιορδανη ποταμω). In the Jordan river, literally.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,6:

Clothed with camel's hair (ενδεδυμενος τριχας καμηλου). Matthew (Mt 3:4) has it a garment (ενδυμα) of camel's hair. Mark has it in the accusative plural the object of the perfect passive participle retained according to a common Greek idiom. It was, of course, not camel's skin, but rough cloth woven of camel's hair. For the locusts and wild honey, see on Mt 3:4. Dried locusts are considered palatable and the wild honey, or "mountain honey" as some versions give it (μελ αγριον), was bountiful in the clefts of the rocks. Some Bedouins make their living yet by gathering this wild honey out of the rocks.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,7:

Mightier than I (ο ισχυροτερος μου). In each of the Synoptics. Gould calls it a skeptical depreciation of himself by John. But it was sincere on John's part and he gives a reason for it.

The Latchet (τον ιμαντα). The thong of the sandal which held it together. When the guest comes into the house, performed by a slave before one enters the bath. Mark alone gives this touch.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,8:

With water (υδατ). So Luke (Lu 3:16) the locative case,

in water . Matthew (Mt 3:11) has εν (in), both with (in) water and the Holy Spirit. The water baptism by John was a symbol of the spiritual baptism by Jesus.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:

In the Jordan (εις τον Ιορδανην). So in verse 10, εκ του υδατος, out of the water, after the baptism into the Jordan. Mark is as fond of "straightway" (ευθυς) as Matthew is of "then" (τοτε).

Rent asunder (σχιζομενους). Split like a garment, present passive participle. Jesus saw the heavens parting as he came up out of the water, a more vivid picture than the "opened" in Mt 3:16 and Lu 3:21. Evidently the Baptist saw all this and the Holy Spirit coming down upon Jesus as a dove because he later mentions it (Joh 1:32). The Cerinthian Gnostics took the dove to mean the heavenly aeon Christ that here descended upon the man Jesus and remained with him till the Cross when it left him, a sort of forecast of the modern distinction between the Jesus of history and the theological Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,11:

Thou art (συ ε). So Lu 3:22. Mt 3:17 has

this is (ουτος εστιν) which see. So both Mark and Luke have "in thee," while Matthew has "in whom."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,12:

Driveth him forth (αυτον εκβαλλε). Vivid word, bolder than Matthew's "was led up" (ανηχθη) and Luke's "was led" (ηγετο). It is the same word employed in the driving out of demons (Mr 1:34,39). Mark has here "straightway" where Matthew has "then" (see on verse 9). The forty days in the wilderness were under the direct guidance of the Holy Spirit. The entire earthly life of Jesus was bound up with the Holy Spirit from his birth to his death and resurrection.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,13:

With the wild beasts (μετα τωυ θηριων). Mark does not give the narrative of the three temptations in Matthew and Luke (apparently from the Logia and originally, of course, from Jesus himself). But Mark adds this little touch about the wild beasts in the wilderness. It was the haunt at night of the wolf, the boar, the hyena, the jackal, the leopard. It was lonely and depressing in its isolation and even dangerous. Swete notes that in Ps 90:13 the promise of victory over the wild beasts comes immediately after that of angelic guardianship cited by Satan in Mt 4:6. The angels did come and minister (διηκονουν), imperfect tense, kept it up till he was cheered and strengthened. Dr. Tristram observes that some Abyssinian Christians are in the habit of coming to the Quarantania during Lent and fasting forty days on the summit amid the ruins of its ancient cells and chapels where they suppose Jesus was tempted. But we are all tempted of the devil in the city even worse than in the desert.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:

Jesus came into Galilee (ηλθεν ο Ιησους εις την Γαλιλαιαν). Here Mark begins the narrative of the active ministry of Jesus and he is followed by Matthew and Luke. Mark undoubtedly follows the preaching of Peter. But for the Fourth Gospel we should not know of the year of work in various parts of the land (Perea, Galilee, Judea, Samaria) preceding the Galilean ministry. John supplements the Synoptic Gospels at this point as often. The arrest of John had much to do with the departure of Jesus from Judea to Galilee (Joh 4:1-4).

Preaching the gospel of God (κηρυσσων το ευαγγελιον του θεου). It is the subjective genitive, the gospel that comes from God. Swete observes that repentance (μετανοια) is the keynote in the message of the Baptist as gospel (ευαγγελιον) is with Jesus. But Jesus took the same line as John and proclaimed both repentance and the arrival of the kingdom of God. Mark adds to Matthew's report the words "the time is fulfilled" (πεπληρωτα ο καιρος). It is a significant fact that John looks backward to the promise of the coming of the Messiah and signalizes the fulfilment as near at hand (perfect passive indicative). It is like Paul's fulness of time (πληρωμα του χρονου) in Ga 4:4 and fulness of the times (πληρωμα τον καιρων) in Eph 1:10 when he employs the word καιρος, opportunity or crisis as here in Mark rather than the more general term χρονος. Mark adds here also: "and believe in the gospel" (κα πιστευετε εν τω ευαγγελιω). Both repent and believe in the gospel. Usually faith in Jesus (or God) is expected as in John 14:1. But this crisis called for faith in the message of Jesus that the Messiah had come. He did not use here the term Messiah, for it had come to have political connotations that made its use at present unwise. But the kingdom of God had arrived with the presence of the King. It does make a difference what one believes. Belief or disbelief in the message of Jesus made a sharp cleavage in those who heard him. "Faith in the message was the first step; a creed of some kind lies at the basis of confidence in the Person of Christ, and the occurrence of the phrase πιστυετε εν τω ευαγγελιω in the oldest record of the teaching of our Lord is a valuable witness to this fact" (Swete).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,16:

And passing along by the Sea of Galilee (κα παραγων παρα την θαλασσαν της Γαλιλαιας). Mark uses παρα (along, beside) twice and makes the picture realistic. He catches this glimpse of Christ in action. Casting a

net (αμφιβαλλοντας). Literally casting on both sides, now on one side, now on the other. Matthew (Mt 4:18) has a different phrase which see. There are two papyri examples of the verb αμφιβαλλω, one verb absolutely for fishing as here, the other with the accusative. It is fishing with a net, making a cast, a haul. These four disciples were fishermen (αλιεις) and were

partners (μετοχο) as Luke states (Lu 5:7).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,17:

Become (γενεσθα). Mark has this word not in Matthew. It would be a slow and long process, but Jesus could and would do it. He would undertake to make fishers of men out of fishermen. Preachers are made out of laymen who are willing to leave their business for service for Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,19:

A little further (ολιγον). A Marcan detail.

Mending their nets (καταρτιζοντας τα δικτυα). See on Mt 4:21. Getting ready that they might succeed better at the next haul.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,20:

With the hired servants (μετα των μισθωτων). One hired for wages (μισθος), a very old Greek word. Zebedee and his two sons evidently had an extensive business in co-operation with Andrew and Simon (Lu 5:7,10). Mark alone has this detail of the hired servants left with Zebedee. They left the boat and their father (Mt 4:22) with the hired servants. The business would go on while they left all (Lu 5:11) and became permanent followers of Jesus. Many a young man has faced precisely this problem when he entered the ministry. Could he leave father and mother, brothers and sisters, while he went forth to college and seminary to become a fisher of men? Not the least of the sacrifices made in the education of young preachers is that made by the home folks who have additional burdens to bear because the young preacher is no longer a bread-winner at home. Most young preachers joyfully carry on such burdens after entering the ministry.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

And taught (εδιδασκεν). Inchoative imperfect, began to teach as soon as he entered the synagogue in Capernaum on the sabbath. The synagogue in Capernaum afforded the best opening for the teaching of Jesus. He had now made Capernaum (Tell Hum) his headquarters after the rejection in Nazareth as explained in Lu 4:16-31 and Mt 4:13-16. The ruins of this synagogue have been discovered and there is even talk of restoring the building since the stones are in a good state of preservation. Jesus both taught (διδασκω) and preached (κηρυσσω) in the Jewish synagogues as opportunity was offered by the chief or leader of the synagogue (αρχισυναγωγος). The service consisted of prayer, praise, reading of scripture, and exposition by any rabbi or other competent person. Often Paul was invited to speak at such meetings. In Lu 4:20 Jesus gave back the roll of Isaiah to the attendant or beadle (τω υπηρετη) whose business it was to bring out the precious manuscript and return it to its place. Jesus was a preacher of over a year when he began to teach in the Capernaum synagogue. His reputation had preceded him (Lu 4:14).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

They were astonished (εξεπλησσοντο). Pictorial imperfect as in Lu 4:32 describing the amazement of the audience, "meaning strictly to strike a person out of his senses by some strong feeling, such as fear, wonder, or even joy" (Gould).

And not as their scribes (κα ουχ ως ο γραμματεις). Lu 4:32 has only "with authority" (εν εξουσια). Mark has it "as having authority" (ως εχων εξουσιαν). He struck a note not found by the rabbi. They quoted other rabbis and felt their function to be expounders of the traditions which they made a millstone around the necks of the people. By so doing they set aside the word and will of God by their traditions and petty legalism (Mr 7:9,13). They were casuists and made false interpretations to prove their punctilious points of external etiquette to the utter neglect of the spiritual reality. The people noticed at once that here was a personality who got his power (authority) direct from God, not from the current scribes. "Mark omits much, and is in many ways a meagre Gospel, but it makes a distinctive contribution to the evangelic history in showing by a few realistic touches (this one of them) the remarkable personality of Jesus" (Bruce). See on Mt 7:29 for the like impression made by the Sermon on the Mount where the same language occurs. The chief controversy in Christ's life was with these scribes, the professional teachers of the oral law and mainly Pharisees. At once the people see that Jesus stands apart from the old group. He made a sensation in the best sense of that word. There was a buzz of excitement at the new teacher that was increased by the miracle that followed the sermon.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

With an unclean spirit (εν πνευματ ακαθαρτω). This use of εν "with" is common in the Septuagint like the Hebrew be, but it occurs also in the papyri. It is the same idiom as "in Christ," "in the Lord" so common with Paul. In English we speak of our being in love, in drink, in his cups, etc. The unclean spirit was in the man and the man in the unclean spirit, a man in the power of the unclean spirit. Luke has "having," the usual construction. See on Mt 22:43. Unclean spirit is used as synonymous with

demon (δαιμονιον). It is the idea of estrangement from God (Zec 13:2). The whole subject of demonology is difficult, but no more so than the problem of the devil. Jesus distinguishes between the man and the unclean spirit. Usually physical or mental disease accompanied the possession by demons. One wonders today if the degenerates and confirmed criminals so common now are not under the power of demons. The only cure for confirmed criminals seems to be conversion (a new heart).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

What have we to do with thee? (τ ημιν κα σοι?) The same idiom in Mt 8:29. Ethical dative. Nothing in common between the demon and Jesus. Note "we." The man speaks for the demon and himself, double personality. The recognition of Jesus by the demons may surprise us since the rabbis (the ecclesiastics) failed to do so. They call Jesus "The Holy One of God" (ο αγιος του θεου). Hence the demon feared that Jesus was come to destroy him and the man in his power. In Mt 8:29 the demon calls Jesus "Son of God." Later the disciples will call Jesus "The Holy One of God" (Joh 6:69). The demon cried out aloud (ανεκραξεν, late first aorist form, ανεκραγεν, common second aorist) so that all heard the strange testimony to Jesus. The man says "I know" (οιδα), correct text, some manuscripts "we know" (οιδαμεν), including the demon.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

Hold thy peace (φιμωθητ). First aorist passive imperative of φιμοω. "Be quiet," Moffatt translates it. But it is a more vigorous word, "Be muzzled" like an ox. So literally in De 25:4, 1Co 9:9; 1Ti 5:18. It is common in Josephus, Lucian, and the LXX. See Mt 22:12,34. Gould renders it "Shut up." "Shut your mouth" would be too colloquial. Vincent suggests "gagged," but that is more the idea of επιστομαζειν in Tit 1:11, to stop the mouth.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,26:

Tearing him (σπαραξαν αυτον). Margin,

convulsing him like a spasm. Medical writers use the word for the rotating of the stomach. Lu 4:35 adds "when the demon had thrown him down in the midst." Mark mentions the "loud voice" (φονη μεγαλη), a screech, in fact. It was a moment of intense excitement.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,27:

They questioned among themselves (συνζητειν αυτους). By look and word.

A new teaching (διδαχη καινη). One surprise had followed another this day. The teaching was fresh (καινη), original as the dew of the morning on the blossoms just blown. That was a novelty in that synagogue where only staid and stilted rabbinical rules had been heretofore droned out. This new teaching charmed the people, but soon will be rated as heresy by the rabbis. And it was with authority (κατ' εξουσιαν). It is not certain whether the phrase is to be taken with "new teaching," "It's new teaching with authority behind it," as Moffatt has it, or with the verb; "with authority commandeth even the unclean spirits" (κα τοις πνευμασιν τοις ακαθαρτοις επιτασσε). The position is equivocal and may be due to the fact that "Mark gives the incoherent and excited remarks of the crowd in this natural form" (Swete). But the most astonishing thing of all is that the demons "obey him" (υπακουουσιν αυτω). The people were accustomed to the use of magical formulae by the Jewish exorcists (Mt 12:27; Ac 19:13), but here was something utterly different. Simon Magus could not understand how Simon Peter could do his miracles without some secret trick and even offered to buy it (Ac 8:19).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

The report of him (η ακοη αυτου). Vulgate, rumor. See Mt 14:1; 24:6. They had no telephones, telegraphs, newspapers or radio, but news has a marvellous way of spreading by word of mouth. The fame of this new teacher went out "everywhere" (πανταχου) throughout all Galilee.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

The house of Simon and Andrew (την οικιαν Σιμωνος κα Ανδρεου). Peter was married and both he and Andrew lived together in "Peter's house" (Mt 8:14) with Peter's wife and mother-in-law. Peter was evidently married before he began to follow Jesus. Later his wife accompanied him on his apostolic journeys (1Co 9:5). This incident followed immediately after the service in the synagogue on the sabbath. All the Synoptics give it. Mark heard Peter tell it as it occurred in his own house where Jesus made his home while in Capernaum. Each Gospel gives touches of its own to the story. Mark has "lay sick of a fever " (κατεκειτο πυρεσσουσα), lay prostrate burning with fever. Matthew puts it "stretched out (βεβλημενην) with a fever." Luke has it "holden with a great fever" (ην συνεχομενη πυρετω μεγαλω), a technical medical phrase. They all mention the instant recovery and ministry without any convalescence. Mark and Matthew speak of the touch of Jesus on her hand and Luke speaks of Jesus standing over her like a doctor. It was a tender scene.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,32:

When the sun did set (οτε εδυσεν ο ηλιος). This picturesque detail Mark has besides "at even" (οψιας γενομενης, genitive absolute, evening having come). Matthew has "when even was come," Luke "when the sun was setting." The sabbath ended at sunset and so the people were now at liberty to bring their sick to Jesus. The news about the casting out of the demon and the healing of Peter's mother-in-law had spread all over Capernaum. They brought them in a steady stream (imperfect tense, εφερον). Luke (Lu 4:40) adds that Jesus laid his hand on every one of them as they passed by in grateful procession.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,33:

At the door (προς την θυραν). At the door of Peter's house. The whole city was gathered together there (ˆn episunˆgmenˆ, past perfect passive periphrastic indicative, double compound επ and συν). Mark alone mentions this vivid detail. He is seeing with Peter's eyes again. Peter no doubt watched the beautiful scene with pride and gratitude as Jesus stood in the door and healed the great crowds in the glory of that sunset. He loved to tell it afterwards.

Divers diseases (ποικιλαις νοσοις). See Mt 4:24 about ποικιλος meaning many-coloured, variegated. All sorts of sick folk came and were healed.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

Devils (δαιμονια). Demons it should be translated always.

Suffered not (ουκ ηφιεν). Would not allow, imperfect tense of continued refusal. The reason given is "because they knew him" (οτ ηιδεισαν αυτον). Whether "to be Christ" (Χριστον εινα) is genuine or not, that is the meaning and is a direct reference to 1:24 when in the synagogue the demon recognized and addressed Jesus as the Holy One of God. Testimony from such a source was not calculated to help the cause of Christ with the people. He had told the other demon to be silent. See on Mt 8:29 for discussion of the word demon.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

In the morning, a great while before day (πρω εννυχα λιαν). Luke has only "when it was day" (γενομενης ημερας). The word πρω in Mark means the last watch of the night from three to six A.M. Εννυχα λιαν means in the early part of the watch while it was still a bit dark (cf. Mr 16:2 λιαν πρω).

Rose up and went out (αναστας εξηλθεν). Out of the house and out of the city, off (απηλθεν, even if not genuine, possibly a conflate reading from 6:32,46). "Flight from the unexpected reality into which His ideal conception of His calling had brought Him" (H.J. Holtzmann). Gould notes that Jesus seems to retreat before his sudden popularity, to prayer with the Father "that he might not be ensnared by this popularity, or in any way induced to accept the ways of ease instead of duty." But Jesus also had a plan for a preaching tour of Galilee and "He felt He could not begin too soon. He left in the night, fearing opposition from the people" (Bruce). Surely many a popular preacher can understand this mood of Jesus when in the night he slips away to a solitary place for prayer. Jesus knew what it was to spend a whole night in prayer. He knew the blessing of prayer and the power of prayer.

And there prayed (κ'ακε προσηυχετο). Imperfect tense picturing Jesus as praying through the early morning hours.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,36:

Followed after him (κατεδιωξεν αυτον). Hunted him out (Moffatt). Perfective use of the preposition κατα (down to the finish). The verb διωκω is used for the hunt or chase, pursuit. Vulgate has persecutus est. The personal story of Peter comes in here. "Simon's intention at least was good; the Master seemed to be losing precious opportunities and must be brought back" (Swete). Peter and those with him kept up the search till they found him. The message that they brought would surely bring Jesus back to Peter's house.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

Into the next towns (εις τας εχομενας κωμοπολεις). It was a surprising decision for Jesus to leave the eager, excited throngs in Capernaum for the country town or village cities without walls or much importance. Only instance of the word in the N.T. Late Greek word. The use of εχομενας for next is a classic use meaning clinging to, next to a thing. So in Lu 13:33; Ac 13:44; 20:15; Heb 6:9. "D" here has εγγυς (near).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,39:

Throughout all Galilee (Εις ολην την Γαλιλαιαν). The first tour of Galilee by Jesus. We are told little about this great preaching tour.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:

Kneeling down to him (κα γονυπετων). Picturesque detail omitted by some MSS. Lu 5:12 has "fell on his face."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,41:

Being moved with compassion (σπλαγχνισθεις). Only in Mark. First aorist passive participle.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,43:

Strictly charged (εμβριμησαμενος). Only in Mark. Lu 5:14 has παρηγγειλεν (commanded). Mark's word occurs also in 14:5 and in Mt 9:30 and Joh 11:38. See on Mt 9:30. It is a strong word for the snorting of a horse and expresses powerful emotion as Jesus stood here face to face with leprosy, itself a symbol of sin and all its train of evils. The command to report to the priests was in accord with the Mosaic regulations and the prohibition against talking about it was to allay excitement and to avoid needless opposition to Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,44:

For a testimony unto them (εις μαρτυριον αυτοις). Without the formal testimony of the priests the people would not receive the leper as officially clean.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,45:

Began to publish it much (ηρξατο κηρυσσειν πολλα). Lu 5:15 puts it, "so much the more" (μαλλον). One of the best ways to spread a thing is to tell people not to tell. It was certainly so in this case. Soon Jesus had to avoid cities and betake himself to desert places to avoid the crowds and even then people kept coming to Jesus (ηρχοντο, imperfect tense). Some preachers are not so disturbed by the onrush of crowds.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

1 The office of John the Baptist.
9 Jesus is baptized;
12 tempted;
14 he preaches;
16 calls Peter, Andrew, James, and John;
23 heals one that had a devil;
29 Peter's mother in law;
32 many diseased persons;
40 and cleanses the leper.


beginning.
Lu 1:2,3; 2:10,11; Ac 1:1,2
Christ.
Joh 20:31; Ro 1:1-4; 1Jo 1:1-3; 5:11,12
son.
Ps 2:7; Mt 3:17; 14:33; 17:5; Lu 1:35; Joh 1:14,34,49; 3:16; 6:69
Ro 8:3,32; Heb 1:1,2
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

written.
Ps 40:7; Mt 2:5; 26:24,31; Lu 1:70; 18:31
in.Several MSS. have, "by Isaiah the prophet." See the parallel texts.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

Isa 40:3-5; Mt 3:3; Lu 3:4-6; Joh 1:15,19-34; 3:28-36
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,4:

did.
Mt 3:1,2,6,11; Lu 3:2,3; Joh 3:23; Ac 10:37; 13:24,25; 19:3,4
for. or, unto. remission.
Ac 22:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,5:

there.
Mt 3:5,6; 4:25
baptized.
Joh 1:28; 3:23
confessing.
Le 26:40-42; Jos 7:19; Ps 32:5; Pr 28:13; Ac 2:38; 19:18
1Jo 1:8-10
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,6:

clothed.
2Ki 1:8; Zec 13:4; Mt 3:4
eat.
Le 11:22
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,7:

Mt 3:11,14; Lu 3:16; 7:6,7; Joh 1:27; 3:28-31; Ac 13:25
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,8:

have.
Mt 3:11
he shall.
Pr 1:23; Isa 32:15; 44:3; Eze 36:25-27; Joe 2:28; Ac 1:5; 2:4,17
Ac 10:45; 11:15,16; 19:4-6; 1Co 12:13; Tit 3:5,6
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:

that.
Mt 3:13-15; Lu 3:21
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,10:

coming.
Mt 3:16; Joh 1:31-34
opened. or, cloven. or rent.
Isa 64:1
the Spirit.
Isa 42:1; Lu 3:22; Joh 1:32
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,11:

there.
Mt 3:17; Joh 5:37; 12:28-30; 2Pe 1:17,18
Thou.
9:7; Ps 2:7; Isa 42:1; Mt 17:5; Lu 9:35; Joh 1:34; 3:16,35,36
Joh 5:20-23; 6:69; Ro 1:4; Col 1:13
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,12:

the Spirit.
Mt 4:1-11; Lu 4:1-4
driveth.Or, "sendeth him forth," [ekballo auton.] The expression does not necessarily imply any violence; but seems to intimate the energy of that impulse on our Lord, by which he was inwardly constrained to retire from society.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,13:

forty.
Ex 24:18; 34:28; De 9:11,18,25; 1Ki 19:8
tempted.
Heb 2:17,18; 4:15
and the.
1Ki 19:5-7; Mt 4:11; 26:53; 1Ti 3:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:

A.M. 4031. A.D. 27. after.
Mt 4:12; 11:2; 14:2; Lu 3:20; Joh 3:22-24
preaching.
Isa 61:1-3; Mt 4:23; 9:35; Lu 4:17-19,43,44; 8:1; Ac 20:25; 28:23
Eph 2:17
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,15:

The time.
Da 2:44; 9:25; Ga 4:4; Eph 1:10
the kingdom.
Mt 3:2; 4:17; 10:7; Lu 10:9,11
repent.
Mt 21:31,32; Lu 24:47; Ac 2:36-38; 20:21; 2Ti 2:25,26
believe.
Ro 16:26
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,16:

as he.
Mt 4:18-22; Lu 5:1,4-11
Simon.
3:16,18; Mt 10:2; Lu 6:14; Joh 1:40-42; 6:8; 12:22; Ac 1:13
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,17:

fishers.
Eze 47:10; Mt 4:19,20; Lu 5:10; Ac 2:38-41
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,18:

forsook.
10:28-31; Mt 19:27-30; Lu 5:11; 14:33; 18:28-30; Php 3:8
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,19:

James.
3:17; 5:37; 9:2; 10:35; 14:33; Mt 4:21; Ac 1:13; 12:2
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,20:

they left.
10:29; De 33:9; 1Ki 19:20; Mt 4:21,22; 8:21,22; 10:37; Lu 14:26
2Co 5:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

they went.
2:1; Mt 4:13; Lu 4:31; 10:15
Capernaum.Capernaum was a city of Galilee, (Lu 4:31,) situated on the confines of Zebulun, and Naphtali, (Mt 4:13,) on the western border of the lake of Tiberias, (Joh 6:59,) and in the land of Gennesaret, (ch. 6:53; Mt 14:34,) where Josephus places a spring of excellent water called Capernaum. Dr. Lightfoot places it between Tiberias and Tarichea, about two miles from the former; and Dr. Richardson, in passing through the plain of Gennesaret, was told by the natives that the ruins of Capernaum were quite near. The Arab station and ruins mentioned by Mr. Buckingham, said to have been formerly called Capharnaoom, situated on the edge of the lake from nine to twelve miles N. N. E. of Tiberias, bearing the name of Talhewn, or as Burckhardt writes it, Tel Houm, appear too far north for its site.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

they were.
Jer 23:29; Mt 7:28,29; 13:54; Lu 4:32; 21:15; Joh 7:46; Ac 6:10
Ac 9:21,22; 2Co 4:2; Heb 4:12,13
as the.
7:3-13; Mt 23:16-24
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

a man.
34; 5:2; 7:25; 9:25; Mt 12:43; Lu 4:33-37
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

Let.
5:7; Ex 14:12; Mt 8:29; Lu 8:28,37; Jas 2:19
the Holy One.
Ps 16:10; 89:18,19; Da 9:24; Lu 4:34; Ac 2:27; 3:14; 4:27; Re 3:7
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

rebuked.
34; 3:11,12; 9:25; Ps 50:16; Lu 4:35,41; Ac 16:17
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,26:

torn.
9:20,26; Lu 9:39,42; 11:22
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,27:

they were.
7:37; Mt 9:33; 12:22,23; 15:31
for.
Lu 4:36; 9:1; 10:17-20
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

45; Mic 5:4; Mt 4:24; 9:31; Lu 4:17,37
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

entered.
Mt 8:14,15; Lu 4:38,39; 9:58
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,30:

wife's.
1Co 9:5
they tell.
5:23; Joh 11:3; Jas 5:14,15
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,31:

and took.
5:41; Ac 9:41
ministered.
15:41; Ps 103:1-3; 116:12; Mt 27:55; Lu 8:2,3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,32:

at even.
21; 3:2; Mt 8:16; Lu 4:40
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,33:

5; Ac 13:44
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

and suffered.
25; 3:12; Lu 4:41; Ac 16:16-18
speak, because they. or, say that they.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

6:46-48; Ps 5:3; 109:4; Lu 4:42; 6:12; 22:39-46; Joh 4:34; 6:15
Eph 6:18; Php 2:5; Heb 5:7
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,36:

36
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,37:

All.
5; Zec 11:11; Joh 3:26; 11:48; 12:19
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

Let.
Lu 4:43
for.
Isa 61:1-3; Lu 2:49; 4:18-21; Joh 9:4; 16:28; 17:4,8
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,39:

preached.
21; Mt 4:23; Lu 4:43,44
Galilee.Galilee was a province of Palestine, being bounded, says Josephus, on the west by Ptolemais and mount Carmel; on the south by the country of Samaria and Scythopolis, on the river Jordan; on the east by the cantons of Hyppos, Gadara, and Gaulon; and on the north by the confines of the Tyrians. It was divided into Lower and Upper Galilee;--Upper Galilee, so called from its being mountainous, was termed Galilee of the Gentiles (Mt 4:15,) because inhabited, says Strabo, by Egyptians, Arabians, and Phoenicians, and comprehended the tribes of Asher and Naphtali; the Lower Galilee contained the tribes of Zebulun and Issachar, and was sometimes termed the Great Field. It was, says Josephus, very populous and rich, containing 204 cities and towns.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:

there.
Mt 8:2-4; Lu 5:12-14
a leper.
Le 13:1-14:57; Nu 12:10-15; De 24:8,9; 2Sa 3:29; 2Ki 5:5-27
2Ki 5:27; 7:3; 15:5; Mt 11:5; Lu 17:12-19
kneeling.
10:17; 2Ch 6:13; Mt 17:14; Lu 22:41; Ac 7:60; Eph 3:14
if thou.
9:22,23; Ge 18:14; 2Ki 5:7
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,41:

moved.
6:34; Mt 9:36; Lu 7:12,13; Heb 2:17; 4:15
I.
4:39; 5:41; Ge 1:3; Ps 33:9; Heb 1:3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,42:

immediately.
31; 5:29; Ps 33:9; Mt 15:28; Joh 4:50-53; 15:3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,43:

3:12; 5:43; 7:36; Mt 9:30; Lu 8:56
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,44:

shew.
Le 14:2-32; Mt 23:2,3; Lu 5:14; 17:14
for a testimony.
Ro 15:4; 1Co 10:11
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,45:

and began.
Ps 77:11; Mt 9:31; Lu 5:15; Tit 1:10
could.
2:1,2,13
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:
The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ - The evangelist speaks with strict propriety: for the beginning of the Gospel is in the account of John the Baptist, contained in the first paragraph; the Gospel itself in the rest of the book. Mt 3:1; Lu 3:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:
Mal 3:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:
Isa 40:3.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,4:
Preaching the baptism of repentance - That is, preaching repentance, and baptizing as a sign and means of it.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,7:
The latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose - That is, to do him the very meanest service.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:
Mt 3:13; Lu 3:21.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,12:
And immediately the Spirit thrusteth him out into the wilderness - So in all the children of God, extraordinary manifestations of his favour are wont to be followed by extraordinary temptations. Mt 4:1; Lu 4:1.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,13:
And he was there forty days, tempted by Satan - Invisibly. After this followed the temptation by him in a visible shape, related by St. Matthew. And he was with the wild beasts - Though they had no power to hurt him. St. Mark not only gives us a compendium of St. Matthew's Gospel, but likewise several valuable particulars, which the other evangelists have omitted.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:
Mt 4:12.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,15:
The time is fulfilled - The time of my kingdom, foretold by Daniel, expected by you, is fully come.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,16:
Mt 4:18; Lu 5:1.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,18:
Straightway leaving their nets, they followed him - From this time they forsook their employ, and constantly attended him. Happy they who follow Christ at the first call!
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:
Lu 4:31.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,26:
A loud noise - For he was forbidden to speak. Christ would neither suffer those evil spirits to speak in opposition, nor yet in favour of him. He needed not their testimony, nor would encourage it, lest any should infer that he acted in concert with them.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:
Mt 8:14; Lu 4:38.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,32:
When the sun was set - And, consequently, the Sabbath was ended, which they reckoned from sunset to sunset.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,33:
And the whole city was gathered together at the door - O what a fair prospect was here! Who could then have imagined that all these blossoms would die away without fruit?
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:
He suffered not the devils to say that they knew him - That is, according to Dr. Mead's hypothesis, (that the Scriptural demoniacs were only diseased persons,) He suffered not the diseases to say that they knew him!
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:
Rising a great while before day - So did he labour for us, both day and night. Lu 4:42.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:
Mt 8:2; Lu 5:12.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,44:
See thou say nothing to any man - But our blessed Lord gives no such charge to us. If he has made us clean from our leprosy of sin, we are not commanded to conceal it. On the contrary, it is our duty to publish it abroad, both for the honour of our Benefactor, and that others who are sick of sin may be encouraged to ask and hope for the same benefit. But go, show thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing what Moses commanded for a testimony to them - The priests seeing him, pronouncing him clean, Lev 13:17,23,28,37, and accordingly allowing him to offer as Moses commanded, Lev 14:2,7, was such a proof against them, that they durst never say the leper was not cleansed; which out of envy or malice against our Saviour they might have been ready to say, upon his presenting himself to be viewed, according to the law, if by the cleansed person's talking much about his cure, the account of it had reached their ears before he came in person. This is one great reason why our Lord commanded this man to say nothing.
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,45:
So that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city - It was also to prevent this inconvenience that our Lord had enjoined him silence.
MHC

Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

     1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God—By the "Gospel" of Jesus Christ here is evidently meant the blessed Story which our Evangelist is about to tell of His Life, Ministry, Death, Resurrection, and Glorification, and of the begun Gathering of Believers in His Name. The abruptness with which he announces his subject, and the energetic brevity with which, passing by all preceding events, he hastens over the ministry of John and records the Baptism and Temptation of Jesus—as if impatient to come to the Public Life of the Lord of glory—have often been noticed as characteristic of this Gospel—a Gospel whose direct, practical, and singularly vivid setting imparts to it a preciousness peculiar to itself. What strikes every one is, that though the briefest of all the Gospels, this is in some of the principal scenes of our Lord's history the fullest. But what is not so obvious is, that wherever the finer and subtler feelings of humanity, or the deeper and more peculiar hues of our Lord's character were brought out, these, though they should be lightly passed over by all the other Evangelists, are sure to be found here, and in touches of such quiet delicacy and power, that though scarce observed by the cursory reader, they leave indelible impressions upon all the thoughtful and furnish a key to much that is in the other Gospels. These few opening words of the Second Gospel are enough to show, that though it was the purpose of this Evangelist to record chiefly the outward and palpable facts of our Lord's public life, he recognized in Him, in common with the Fourth Evangelist, the glory of the Only-begotten of the Father.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

     2, 3. As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee— (Mal 3:1; Isa 40:3).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

     3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight—The second of these quotations is given by Matthew and Luke in the same connection, but they reserve the former quotation till they have occasion to return to the Baptist, after his imprisonment (Mt 11:10; Lu 7:27). (Instead of the words, "as it is written in the Prophets," there is weighty evidence in favor of the following reading: "As it is written in Isaiah the prophet." This reading is adopted by all the latest critical editors. If it be the true one, it is to be explained thus—that of the two quotations, the one from Malachi is but a later development of the great primary one in Isaiah, from which the whole prophetical matter here quoted takes its name. But the received text is quoted by IRENÆUS, before the end of the second century, and the evidence in its favor is greater in amount, if not in weight. The chief objection to it is, that if this was the true reading, it is difficult to see how the other one could have got in at all; whereas, if it be not the true reading, it is very easy to see how it found its way into the text, as it removes the startling difficulty of a prophecy beginning with the words of Malachi being ascribed to Isaiah.) For the exposition, see on Mt 3:1-6; Mt 3:11.

     Mr 1:9-11. BAPTISM OF CHRIST AND DESCENT OF THE SPIRIT UPON HIM IMMEDIATELY THEREAFTER. ( = Mt 3:13-17; Lu 3:21, 22).

     See on Mt 3:13-17.

     Mr 1:12, 13. TEMPTATION OF CHRIST. ( = Mt 4:1-11; Lu 4:1-13).

     See on Mt 4:1-11.

     Mr 1:14-20. CHRIST BEGINS HIS GALILEAN MINISTRY—CALLING OF SIMON AND ANDREW, JAMES AND JOHN.

     See on Mt 4:12-22.

     Mr 1:21-39. HEALING OF A DEMONIAC IN THE SYNAGOGUE OF CAPERNAUM AND THEREAFTER OF SIMON'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS—JESUS, NEXT DAY, IS FOUND IN A SOLITARY PLACE AT MORNING PRAYERS, AND IS ENTREATED TO RETURN, BUT DECLINES, AND GOES FORTH ON HIS FIRST MISSIONARY CIRCUIT. ( = Lu 4:31-44; Mt 8:14-17; 4:23-25).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

     21. And they went into Capernaum—(See on Mt 4:13).
      and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught—This should have been rendered, "straightway on the sabbaths He entered into the synagogue and taught," or "continued to teach." The meaning is, that as He began this practice on the very first sabbath after coming to settle at Capernaum, so He continued it regularly thereafter.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

     22. And they were astonished at his doctrine—or "teaching"—referring quite as much to the manner as the matter of it.
      for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes—See on Mt 7:28, 29.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

     23. And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit—literally, "in an unclean spirit"—that is, so entirely under demoniacal power that his personality was sunk for the time in that of the spirit. The frequency with which this character of "impurity" is ascribed to evil spirits—some twenty times in the Gospels—is not to be overlooked.
      and he cried out—as follows:


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

     24. Saying, Let us alone—or rather, perhaps, "ah!" expressive of mingled astonishment and terror.
      what have we to do with thee—an expression of frequent occurrence in the Old Testament (1Ki 17:18; 2Ki 3:13; 2Ch 35:21, &c.). It denotes entire separation of interests:—that is, "Thou and we have nothing in common; we want not Thee; what wouldst Thou with us?" For the analogous application of it by our Lord to His mother, see on Joh 2:4.
      thou Jesus of Nazareth—"Jesus, Nazarene!" an epithet originally given to express contempt, but soon adopted as the current designation by those who held our Lord in honor (Lu 18:37; Mr 16:6; Ac 2:22).
      art thou come to destroy us?—In the case of the Gadarene demoniac the question was, "Art Thou come hither to torment us before the time?" (Mt 8:29). Themselves tormentors and destroyers of their victims, they discern in Jesus their own destined tormentor and destroyer, anticipating and dreading what they know and feel to be awaiting them! Conscious, too, that their power was but permitted and temporary, and perceiving in Him, perhaps, the woman's Seed that was to bruise the head and destroy the works of the devil, they regard His approach to them on this occasion as a signal to let go their grasp of this miserable victim.
      I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God—This and other even more glorious testimonies to our Lord were given, as we know, with no good will, but in hope that, by the acceptance of them, He might appear to the people to be in league with evil spirits—a calumny which His enemies were ready enough to throw out against Him. But a Wiser than either was here, who invariably rejected and silenced the testimonies that came to Him from beneath, and thus was able to rebut the imputations of His enemies against Him (Mt 12:24-30). The expression, "Holy One of God," seems evidently taken from that Messianic Psalm (Ps 16:10), in which He is styled "Thine Holy One."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

     25. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him—A glorious word of command. BENGEL remarks that it was only the testimony borne to Himself which our Lord meant to silence. That he should afterwards cry out for fear or rage (Mr 1:26) He would right willingly permit.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,26:

     26. And when the unclean spirit had torn him—Luke (Lu 4:35) says, "When he had thrown him in the midst." Malignant cruelty—just showing what he would have done, if permitted to go farther: it was a last fling!
      and cried with a loud voice—the voice of enforced submission and despair.
      he came out of him—Luke (Lu 4:35) adds, "and hurt him not." Thus impotent were the malignity and rage of the impure spirit when under the restraint of "the Stronger than the strong one armed" (Lu 11:21, 22).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,27:

     27. What thing is this? what new doctrine—teaching
      is this?—The audience, rightly apprehending that the miracle was wrought to illustrate the teaching and display the character and glory of the Teacher, begin by asking what novel kind of teaching this could be, which was so marvellously attested.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

     28. And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee—rather, "the whole region of Galilee"; though some, as MEYER and ELLICOTT, explain it of the country surrounding Galilee.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

     29. And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue—so also in Lu 4:38.
      they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John—The mention of these four—which is peculiar to Mark—is the first of those traces of Peter's hand in this Gospel, of which we shall find many more. The house being his, and the illness and cure so nearly affecting himself, it is interesting to observe this minute specification of the number and names of the witnesses; interesting also as the first occasion on which the sacred triumvirate of Peter and James and John are selected from among the rest, to be a threefold cord of testimony to certain events in their Lord's life (see on Mr 5:37) —Andrew being present on this occasion, as the occurrence took place in his own house.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,30:

     30. But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever—Luke, as was natural in "the beloved physician" (Col 4:14), describes it professionally; calling it a "great fever," and thus distinguishing it from that lighter kind which the Greek physicians were wont to call "small fevers," as GALEN, quoted by WETSTEIN, tells us.
      and anon—immediately.
      they tell him of her—naturally hoping that His compassion and power towards one of His own disciples would not be less signally displayed than towards the demonized stranger in the synagogue.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,31:

     31. And he came and took her by the hand—rather, "And advancing, He took her," &c. The beloved physician again is very specific: "And He stood over her."
      and lifted her up—This act of condescension, most felt doubtless by Peter, is recorded only by Mark.
      and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them—preparing their sabbath-meal: in token both of the perfectness and immediateness of the cure, and of her gratitude to the glorious Healer.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,32:

     32. And at even, when the sun did set—so Mt 8:16. Luke (Lu 4:40) says it was setting.
      they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils—the demonized. From Lu 13:14 we see how unlawful they would have deemed it to bring their sick to Jesus for a cure during the sabbath hours. They waited, therefore, till these were over, and then brought them in crowds. Our Lord afterwards took repeated occasion to teach the people by example, even at the risk of His own life, how superstitious a straining of the sabbath rest this was.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,33:

     33. And all the city was gathered together at the door—of Peter's house; that is, the sick and those who brought them, and the wondering spectators. This bespeaks the presence of an eye-witness, and is one of those lively examples of word-painting so frequent in this Gospel.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

     34. And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils—In Mt 8:16 it is said, "He cast out the spirits with His word"; or rather, "with a word"—a word of command.
      and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him—Evidently they would have spoken, if permitted, proclaiming His Messiahship in such terms as in the synagogue; but once in one day, and that testimony immediately silenced, was enough. See on Mr 1:24. After this account of His miracles of healing, we have in Mt 8:17 this pregnant quotation, "That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying (Isa 53:4), Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

     35. And in the morning—that is, of the day after this remarkable sabbath; or, on the first day of the week. His choosing this day to inaugurate a new and glorious stage of His public work, should be noted by the reader.
      rising up a great while before day—"while it was yet night," or long before daybreak.
      he went out—all unperceived from Peter's house, where He slept.
      and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed—or, "continued in prayer." He was about to begin His first preaching and healing circuit; and as on similar solemn occasions (Lu 5:16; 6:12; 9:18, 28, 29; Mr 6:46), He spent some time in special prayer, doubtless with a view to it. What would one not give to have been, during the stillness of those grey morning hours, within hearing—not of His "strong crying and tears," for He had scarce arrived at the stage for that—but of His calm, exalted anticipations of the work which lay immediately before Him, and the outpourings of His soul about it into the bosom of Him that sent Him! He had doubtless enjoyed some uninterrupted hours of such communings with His heavenly Father ere His friends from Capernaum arrived in search of Him. As for them, they doubtless expected, after such a day of miracles, that the next day would witness similar manifestations. When morning came, Peter, loath to break in upon the repose of his glorious Guest, would await His appearance beyond the usual hour; but at length, wondering at the stillness, and gently coming to see where the Lord lay, he finds it—like the sepulchre afterwards—empty! Speedily a party is made up to go in search of Him, Peter naturally leading the way.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,36:

     36. And Simon and they that were with him followed after him—rather, "pressed after Him." Luke (Lu 4:42) says, "The multitudes sought after Him"; but this would be a party from the town. Mark, having his information from Peter himself, speaks only of what related directly to him. "They that were with him" would probably be Andrew his brother, James and John, with a few other choice brethren.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,37:

     37. And when they had found him—evidently after some search.
      they said unto him, All men seek for thee—By this time, "the multitudes" who, according to Luke (Lu 4:42), "sought after Him"—and who, on going to Peter's house, and there learning that Peter and a few more were gone in search of Him, had set out on the same errand—would have arrived, and "came unto Him and stayed Him, that He should not depart from them" (Lu 4:42); all now urging His return to their impatient townsmen.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

     38. And he said unto them, Let us go—or, according to another reading, "Let us go elsewhere."
      into the next towns—rather, "unto the neighboring village-towns"; meaning those places intermediate between towns and villages, with which the western side of the Sea of Galilee was studded.
      that I may preach there also; for therefore came I forth—not from Capernaum, as DE WETTE miserably interprets, nor from His privacy in the desert place, as MEYER, no better; but from the Father. Compare Joh 16:28, "I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world," &c.—another proof, by the way, that the lofty phraseology of the Fourth Gospel was not unknown to the authors of the others, though their design and point of view are different. The language in which our Lord's reply is given by Luke (Lu 4:43) expresses the high necessity under which, in this as in every other step of His work, He acted—"I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also; for therefore"—or, "to this end"—"am I sent." An act of self-denial it doubtless was, to resist such pleadings to return to Capernaum. But there were overmastering considerations on the other side.

     Mr 1:40-45. HEALING OF A LEPER. ( = Mt 8:1-4; Lu 5:12-16).

     See on Mt 8:1-4.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:
The Ministry of John the Baptist.

      1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;   2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.   3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.   4 John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.   5 And there went out unto him all the land of Judæa, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.   6 And John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey;   7 And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose.   8 I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.

      We may observe here,

      I. What the New Testament is--the divine testament, to which we adhere above all that is human; the new testament, which we advance above that which was old. It is the gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God, v. 1. 1. It is gospel; it is God's word, and is faithful and true; see Rev. xix. 9; xxi. 5; xxii. 6. It is a good word, and well worthy of all acceptation; it brings us glad tidings. 2. It is the gospel of Jesus Christ, the anointed Saviour, the Messiah promised and expected. The foregoing gospel began with the generation of Jesus Christ--that was but preliminary, this comes immediately to the business--the gospel of Christ. It is called his, not only because he is the Author of it, and it comes from him, but because he is the Subject of it, and it treats wholly concerning him. 3. This Jesus is the Son of God. That truth is the foundation on which the gospel is built, and which it is written to demonstrate; for is Jesus be not the Son of God, our faith is vain.

      II. What the reference of the New Testament is to the Old, and its coherence with it. The gospel of Jesus Christ begins, and so we shall find it goes on, just as it is written in the prophets (v. 2); for it saith no other things than those which the prophets and Moses said should come (Acts xxvi. 22), which was most proper and powerful for the conviction of the Jews, who believed the Old-Testament prophets to be sent of God and ought to have evidenced that they did so by welcoming the accomplishment of their prophecies in its season; but it is of use to us all, for the confirmation of our faith both in the Old Testament and in the New, for the exact harmony that there is between both shows that they both have the same divine original.

      Quotations are here borrowed from two prophecies--that of Isaiah, which was the longest, and that of Malachi, which was the latest (and there were above three hundred years between them), both of whom spoke to the same purport concerning the beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, in the ministry of John.

      1. Malachi, in whom we had the Old-Testament farewell, spoke very plainly (ch. iii. 1) concerning John Baptist, who was to give the New-Testament welcome. Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, v. 2. Christ himself had taken notice of this, and applied it to John (Matt. xi. 10), who was God's messenger, sent to prepare Christ's way.

      2. Isaiah, the most evangelical of all the prophets, begins the evangelical part of his prophecy with this, which points to the beginning of the gospel of Christ (Isa. xl. 3); The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, v. 3. Matthew had taken notice of this, and applied it to John, ch. iii. 3. But from these two put together here, we may observe, (1.) That Christ, in his gospel, comes among us, bringing with him a treasure of grace, and a sceptre of government. (2.) Such is the corruption of the world, that there is something to do to make room for him, and to remove that which gives not only obstruction, but opposition to his progress. (3.) When God sent his Son into the world, he took care, and when he sends him into the heart, he takes care, effectual care, to prepare his way before him; for the designs of his grace shall not be frustrated; nor may any expect the comforts of that grace, but such as, by conviction of sin and humiliation for it, are prepared for those comforts, and disposed to receive them. (4.) When the paths that were crooked, are made straight (the mistakes of the judgment rectified, and the crooked ways of the affections), then way is made for Christ's comforts. (5.) It is in a wilderness, for such this world is, that Christ's way is prepared, and theirs that follow him, like that which Israel passed through to Canaan. (6.) The messengers of conviction and terror, that come to prepare Christ's way, are God's messengers, whom he sends and will own, and must be received as such. (7.) They that are sent to prepare the way of the Lord, in such a vast howling wilderness as this is, have need to cry aloud, and not spare, and to lift up their voice like a trumpet.

      III. What the beginning of the New Testament was. The gospel began in John Baptist; for the law and the prophets were, until John, the only divine revelation, but then the kingdom of God began to be preached, Luke xvi. 16. Peter begins from the baptism of John, Acts i. 22. The gospel did not begin so soon as the birth of Christ, for he took time to increase in wisdom and stature, not so late as his entering upon his public ministry, but half a year before, when John began to preach the same doctrine that Christ afterward preached. His baptism was the dawning of the gospel day; for,

      1. In John's way of living there was the beginning of a gospel spirit; for it bespoke great self-denial, mortification of the flesh, a holy contempt of the world, and nonconformity to it, which may truly be called the beginning of the gospel of Christ in any soul, v. 6. He was clothed with camels' hair, not with soft raiment; was girt, not with a golden, but with a leathern girdle; and, in contempt of dainties and delicate things, his meat was locusts and wild honey. Note, The more we sit loose to the body, and live above the world, the better we are prepared for Jesus Christ.

      2. In John's preaching and baptizing there was the beginning of the gospel doctrines and ordinances, and the first fruits of them. (1.) He preached the remission of sins, which is the great gospel privilege; showed people their need of it, that they were undone without it, and that it might be obtained. (2.) He preached repentance, in order to it; he told people that there must be a renovation of their hearts and a reformation of their lives, that they must forsake their sins and turn to God, and upon those terms and no other, their sins should be forgiven. Repentance for the remission of sins, was what the apostles were commissioned to preach to all nations, Luke xxiv. 27. (3.) He preached Christ, and directed his hearers to expect him speedily to appear, and to expect great things from him. The preaching of Christ is pure gospel, and that was John Baptist's preaching, v. 7, 8. Like a true gospel minister, he preaches, [1.] The great pre-eminence Christ is advanced to; so high, so great, is Christ, that John, though one of the greatest that was born of women, thinks himself unworthy to be employed in the meanest office about him, even to stoop down, and untie his shoes. Thus industrious is he to give honour to him, and to bring others to do so too. [2.] The great power Christ is invested with; He comes after me in time, but he is mightier than I, mightier than the mighty ones of the earth, for he is able to baptize with the Holy Ghost; he can give the Spirit of God, and by him govern the spirits of men. [3.] The great promise Christ makes in his gospel to those who have repented, and have had their sins forgiven them; They shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost, shall be purified by his graces, and refreshed by his comforts. And, lastly, All those who received his doctrine, and submitted to his institution, he baptized with water, as the manner of the Jews was to admit proselytes, in token of their cleansing themselves by repentance and reformation (which were the duties required), and of God's cleansing them both by remission and by sanctification, which were the blessings promised. Now this was afterward to be advanced into a gospel ordinance, which John's using it was a preface to.

      3. In the success of John's preaching, and the disciples he admitted by baptism, there was the beginning of a gospel church. He baptized in the wilderness, and declined going into the cities; but there went out unto him all the land of Judea, and they of Jerusalem, inhabitants both of city and country, families of them, and were all baptized of him. They entered themselves his disciples, and bound themselves to his discipline; in token of which, they confessed their sins; he admitted them his disciples, in token of which, he baptized them. Here were the stamina of the gospel church, the dew of its youth from the womb of the morning, Ps. cx. 3. Many of these afterward became followers of Christ, and preachers of his gospel, and this grain of mustard-seed became a tree.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:
The Baptism of Jesus.

      9 And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.   10 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him:   11 And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.   12 And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness.   13 And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.

      We have here a brief account of Christ's baptism and temptation, which were largely related Matt. iii. and iv.

      I. His baptism, which was his first public appearance, after he had long lived obscurely in Nazareth. O how much hidden worth is there, which in this world is either lost in the dust of contempt and cannot be known, or wrapped up in the veil of humility and will not be known! But sooner or later it shall be known, as Christ's was.

      1. See how humbly he owned God, by coming to be baptized of John; and thus it became him to fulfil all righteousness. Thus he took upon him the likeness of sinful flesh, that, though he was perfectly pure and unspotted, yet he was washed as if he had been polluted; and thus for our sakes he sanctified himself, that we also might be sanctified, and be baptized with him, John xvii. 19.

      2. See how honourably God owned him, when he submitted to John's baptism. Those who justify God, and they are said to do, who were baptized with the baptism of John, he will glorify, Luke vii. 29, 30.

      (1.) He saw the heavens opened; thus he was owned to be the Lord from heaven, and had a glimpse of the glory and joy that were set before him, and secured to him, as the recompence of his undertaking. Matthew saith, The heavens were opened to him. Mark saith, He saw them opened. Many have the heavens opened to receive them, but they do not see it; Christ had not only a clear foresight of his sufferings, but of his glory too.

      (2.) He saw the Spirit like a dove descending upon him. Note, Then we may see heaven opened to us, when we perceive the Spirit descending and working upon us. God's good work in us is the surest evidence of his good will towards us, and his preparations for us. Justin Martyr says, that when Christ was baptized, a fire was kindled in Jordan: and it is an ancient tradition, that a great light shone round the place; for the Spirit brings both light and heat.

      (3.) He heard a voice which was intended for his encouragement to proceed in his undertaking, and therefore it is here expressed as directed to him, Thou art my beloved Son. God lets him know, [1.] That he loved him never the less for that low and mean estate to which he had now humbled himself; "Though thus emptied and made of no reputation, yet he is my beloved Son still." [2.] That he loved him much the more for that glorious and kind undertaking in which he had now engaged himself. God is well pleased in him, as referee of all matters in controversy between him and man; and so well pleased in him, as to be well pleased with us in him.

      II. His temptation. The good Spirit that descended upon him, led him into the wilderness, v. 12. Paul mentions it as a proof that he had his doctrine from God, and not from man--that, as soon as he was called, he went not to Jerusalem, but went into Arabia, Gal. i. 17. Retirement from the world is an opportunity of more free converse with God, and therefore must sometimes be chosen, for a while, even by those that are called to the greatest business. Mark observes this circumstance of his being in the wilderness--that he was with the wild beasts. It was an instance of his Father's care of him, that he was preserved from being torn in pieces by the wild beasts, which encouraged him the more that his Father would provide for him when he was hungry. Special protections are earnests of seasonable supplies. It was likewise an intimation to him of the inhumanity of the men of that generation, whom he was to live among--no better than wild beasts in the wilderness, nay abundantly worse. In that wilderness,

      1. The evil spirits were busy with him; he was tempted of Satan; not by any inward injections (the prince of this world had nothing in him to fasten upon), but by outward solicitations. Solicitude often gives advantages to the tempter, therefore two are better than one. Christ himself was tempted, not only to teach us, that it is no sin to be tempted, but to direct us whither to go for succour when we are tempted, even to him that suffered, being tempted; that he might experimentally sympathize with us when we are tempted.

      2. The good spirits were busy about him; the angels ministered to him, supplied him with what he needed, and dutifully attended him. Note, The ministration of the good angels about us, is matter of great comfort in reference to the malicious designs of the evil angels against us; but much more doth it befriend us, to have the indwelling of the spirit in our hearts, which they that have, are so born of God, that, as far as they are so, the evil one toucheth them not, much less shall be triumph over them.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:
The Opening of Christ's Ministry.

      14 Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God,   15 And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.   16 Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.   17 And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men.   18 And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed him.   19 And when he had gone a little further thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets.   20 And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after him.   21 And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught.   22 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.

      Here is, I. A general account of Christ's preaching in Galilee. John gives an account of his preaching in Judea, before this (ch. ii. and iii.), which the other evangelists had omitted, who chiefly relate what occurred in Galilee, because that was least known at Jerusalem. Observe,

      1. When Jesus began to preach in Galilee; After that John was put in prison. When he had finished his testimony, then Jesus began his. Note, The silencing of Christ's ministers shall not be the suppressing of Christ's gospel; if some be laid aside, others shall be raised up, perhaps mightier than they, to carry on the same work.

      2. What he preached; The gospel of the kingdom of God. Christ came to set up the kingdom of God among men, that they might be brought into subjection to it, and might obtain salvation in it; and he set it up by the preaching of his gospel, and a power going along with it.

      Observe, (1.) The great truths Christ preached; The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand. This refers to the Old Testament, in which the kingdom of the Messiah was promised, and the time fixed for the introducing of it. They were not so well versed in those prophecies, nor did they so well observe the signs of the times, as to understand it themselves, and therefore Christ gives them notice of it; "The time prefixed is now at hand; glorious discoveries of divine light, life, and love, are now to be made; a new dispensation far more spiritual and heavenly than that which you have hitherto been under, is now to commence." Note, God keeps time; when the time is fulfilled, the kingdom of God is at hand, for the vision is for an appointed time, which will be punctually observed, though it tarry past our time.

      (2.) The great duties inferred from thence. Christ gave them to understand the times, that they might know what Israel ought to do; they fondly expected the Messiah to appear in external pomp and power, not only to free the Jewish nation from the Roman yoke, but to make it have dominion over all its neighbours, and therefore thought, when that kingdom of God was at hand, they must prepare for war, and for victory and preferment, and great things in the world; but Christ tells them, in the prospect of that kingdom approaching, they must repent, and believe the gospel. They had broken the moral law, and could not be saved by a covenant of innocency, for both Jew and Gentile are concluded under guilt. They must therefore take the benefit of a covenant of grace, must submit to a remedial law, and this is it--repentance towards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. They had not made use of the prescribed preservatives, and therefore must have recourse to the prescribed restoratives. By repentance we must lament and forsake our sins, and by faith we must receive the forgiveness of them. By repentance we must give glory to our Creator whom we have offended; by faith we must give glory to our Redeemer who came to save us from our sins. Both these must go together; we must not think either that reforming our lives will save us without trusting in the righteousness and grace of Christ, or that trusting in Christ will save us without the reformation of our hearts and lives. Christ hath joined these two together, and let no man think to put them asunder. They will mutually assist and befriend each other. Repentance will quicken faith, and faith will make repentance evangelical; and the sincerity of both together must be evidenced by a diligent conscientious obedience to all God's commandments. Thus the preaching of the gospel began, and thus it continues; still the call is, Repent, and believe, and live a life of repentance and a life of faith.

      II. Christ appearing as a teacher, here is next his calling of disciples, v. 16-20. Observe, 1. Christ will have followers. If he set up a school, he will have scholars; if he set up his standard, he will have soldiers; if he preach, he will have hearers. He has taken an effectual course to secure this; for all that the Father has given him, shall, without fail, come to him. 2. The instruments Christ chose to employ in setting up his kingdom, were the weak and foolish things of the world; not called from the great sanhedrim, or the schools of the rabbin, but picked up from among the tarpaulins by the sea-side, that the excellency of the power might appear to be wholly of God, and not at all of them. 3. Though Christ needs not the help of man, yet he is pleased to make use of it in setting up his kingdom, that he might deal with us not in a formidable but in a familiar way, and that in his kingdom the nobles and governors may be of ourselves, Jer. xxxi. 21. 4. Christ puts honour upon those who, though mean in the world, are diligent in their business, and loving to one another; so those were, whom Christ called. He found them employed, and employed together. Industry and unity are good and pleasant, and there the Lord Jesus commands the blessing, even this blessing, Follow me. 5. The business of ministers is to fish for souls, and win them to Christ. The children of men, in their natural condition, are lost, wander endlessly in the great ocean of this world, and are carried down the stream of its course and way; they are unprofitable. Like leviathan in the waters, they play therein; and often, like the fishes of the sea, they devour one another. Ministers, in preaching the gospel, cast the net into the waters, Matt. xiii. 47. Some are enclosed and brought to shore, but far the greater number escape. Fishermen take great pains, and expose themselves to great perils, so do ministers; and they have need of wisdom. If many a draught brings home nothing, yet they must go on. 6. Those whom Christ called, must leave all, to follow him; and by his grace he inclines them to do so. Not that we must needs go out of the world immediately, but we must sit loose to the world, and forsake every thing that is inconsistent with our duty to Christ, and that cannot be kept without prejudice to our souls. Mark takes notice of James and John, that they left not only their father (which we had in Matthew), but the hired servants, whom perhaps they loved as their own brethren, being their fellow-labourers and pleasant comrades; not only relations, but companions, must be left for Christ, and old acquaintance. Perhaps it is an intimation of their care for their father; they did not leave him without assistance, they left the hired servants with him. Grotius thinks it is mentioned as an evidence that their calling was gainful to them, for it was worth while to keep servants in pay, to help them in it, and their hands would be much missed, and yet they left it.

      III. Here is a particular account of his preaching in Capernaum, one of the cities of Galilee; for though John Baptist chose to preach in a wilderness, and did well, and did good, yet it doth not therefore follow, that Jesus must do so too; the inclinations and opportunities of ministers may very much differ, and yet both be in the way of their duty, and both useful. Observe, 1. When Christ came into Capernaum, he straightway applied himself to his work there, and took the first opportunity of preaching the gospel. Those will think themselves concerned not to lose time, who consider what a deal of work they have to do, and what a little time to do it in. 2. Christ religiously observed the sabbath day, though not by tying himself up to the tradition of the elders, in all the niceties of the sabbath-rest, yet (which was far better) by applying himself to, and abounding in, the sabbath-work, in order to which the sabbath-rest was instituted. 3. Sabbaths are to be sanctified in religious assemblies, if we have opportunity; it is a holy day, and must be honoured with a holy convocation; this was the good old way, Acts xiii. 27; xv. 21. On the sabbath-day, pois sabbasin--on the sabbath-days; every sabbath-day, as duly as it returned, he went into the synagogue. 4. In religious assemblies on sabbath-days, the gospel is to be preached, and those to be taught, who are willing to learn the truth as it is in Jesus. 5. Christ was a non-such preacher; he did not preach as the scribes, who expounded the law of Moses by rote, as a school-boy says his lesson, but were neither acquainted with it (Paul himself, when a Pharisee, was ignorant of the law), nor affected with it; it came not from the heart, and therefore came not with authority. But Christ taught as one that had authority, as one that knew the mind of God, and was commissioned to declare it. 6. There is much in the doctrine of Christ, that is astonishing; the more we hear it, the more cause we shall see to admire it.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:
The Expulsion of Evil Spirits.

      23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,   24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.   25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him.   26 And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him.   27 And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him.   28 And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee.

      As soon as Christ began to preach, he began to work miracles for the confirmation of his doctrine; and they were such as intimated the design and tendency of his doctrine, which were to conquer Satan, and cure sick souls.

      In these verses, we have,

      I. Christ's casting the devil out of a man that was possessed, in the synagogue at Capernaum. This passage was not related in Matthew, but is afterward in Luke iv. 33. There was in the synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, en pneumati akatharto--in an unclean spirit; for the spirit had the man in his possession, and led him captive at his will. So the whole world is said to lie en to ponero--in the wicked one. And some have thought it more proper to say, The body is in the soul, because it is governed by it, than the soul in the body. He was in the unclean spirit, as a man is said to be in a fever, or in a frenzy, quite overcome by it. Observe, The devil is here called an unclean spirit, because he has lost all the purity of his nature, because he acts in direct opposition to the Holy Spirit of God, and because with his suggestions he pollutes the spirits of men. This man was in the synagogue; he did not come either to be taught or to be healed, but, as some think, to confront Christ and oppose him, and hinder people from believing on him. Now here we have,

      1. The rage which the unclean spirit expressed at Christ; He cried out, as one in an agony, at the presence of Christ, and afraid of being dislodged; thus the devils believe and tremble, have a horror of Christ, but no hope in him, nor reverence for him. We are told what he said, v. 24, where he doth not go about to capitulate with him, or make terms (so far was he from being in league or compact with him), but speaks as one that knew his doom. (1.) He calls him Jesus of Nazareth; for aught that appears, he was the first that called him so, and he did it with design to possess the minds of the people with low thoughts of him, because no good thing was expected out of Nazareth; and with prejudices against him as a Deceiver, because every body knew the Messiah must be of Bethlehem. (2.) Yet a confession is extorted from him--that he is the holy One of God, as was from the damsel that had the spirit of divination concerning the apostles--that they were the servants of the most high God, Acts xvi. 16, 17. Those who have only a notion of Christ--that he is the holy One of God, and have no faith in him, or love to him, go no further than the devil doth. (3.) He in effect acknowledgeth that Christ was too hard for him, and that he could not stand before the power of Christ; "Let us alone; for if thou take us to task, we are undone, thou canst destroy us." This is the misery of those wicked spirits, that they persist in their rebellion, and yet know it will end in their destruction. (4.) He desires to have nothing to do with Jesus Christ; for he despairs of being saved by him, and dreads being destroyed by him. "What have we to do with thee? If thou wilt let us alone, we will let thee alone." See whose language they speak, that say to the Almighty, Depart from us. This, being an unclean spirit, therefore hated and dreaded Christ, because he knew him to be a holy One; for the carnal mind is enmity against God, especially against his holiness.

      2. The victory which Jesus Christ obtained over the unclean spirit; for this purpose was the Son of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil, and so he makes it to appear; nor will he be turned back from prosecuting this war, either by his flatteries or by his menaces. It is in vain for Satan to beg and pray, Let us alone; his power must be broken, and the poor man must be relieved; and therefore, (1.) Jesus commands. As he taught, so he healed, with authority. Jesus rebuked him; he chid him and threatened him, imposed silence upon him; Hold thy peace; phimotheti--be muzzled. Christ has a muzzle for that unclean spirit when he fawns as well as when he barks; such acknowledgments of him as this was, Christ disdains, so far is he from accepting them. Some confess Christ to be the holy One of God, that under the cloak of that profession they may carry on malicious mischievous designs; but their confession is doubly an abomination to the Lord Jesus, as it sues in his name for a license to sin, and shall therefore be put to silence and shame. But this is not all, he must not only hold his peace, but he must come out of the man; this was it he dreaded--his being restrained from doing further mischief. But, (2.) The unclean spirit yields, for there is no remedy (v. 26); He tore him, put him into a strong convulsion; that one could have thought he had been pulled in pieces; when he would not touch Christ, in fury at him he grievously disturbed this poor creature. Thus, when Christ by his grace delivers poor souls out of the hands of Satan, it is not without a grievous toss and tumult in the soul; for that spiteful enemy will disquiet those whom he cannot destroy. He cried with a loud voice, to frighten the spectators, and make himself seem terrible, as if he would have it thought that though he was conquered, he was but just conquered, and that he hopes to rally again, and recover his ground.

      II. The impression which this miracle made upon the minds of the people, v. 27, 28.

      1. It astonished them that saw it; They were all amazed. It was evident, beyond contradiction, that the man was possessed--witness the tearing of him, and the loud voice with which the spirit cried; it was evident that he was forced out by the authority of Christ; this was surprising to them, and put them upon considering with themselves, and enquiring of one another, "What is this new doctrine? For it must certainly be of God, which is thus confirmed. He hath certainly an authority to command us, who hath ability to command even the unclean spirits, and they cannot resist him, but are forced to obey him." The Jewish exorcists pretended by charm or invocation to drive away evil spirits; but this was quite another thing, with authority he commands them. Surely it is our interest to make him our Friend, who has the control of infernal spirits.

      2. It raised his reputation among all that heard it; Immediately his fame spread abroad into the whole adjacent region of Galilee, which was a third part of the land of Canaan. The story was presently got into every one's mouth, and people wrote it to their friends all the country over, together with the remark made upon it, What new doctrine is this? So that it was universally concluded, that he was a Teacher come from God, and under that character he shone more bright than if he had appeared in all the external pomp and power which the Jews expected their Messiah to appear in; and thus he prepared his own way, now that John, who was his harbinger, was clapped up; and the fame of this miracle spread the further, because as yet the Pharisees, who envied his fame, and laboured to eclipse it, had not advanced their blasphemous suggestion, that he cast out devils by compact with the prince of the devils.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:
Christ Healing Many Patients.

      29 And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.   30 But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her.   31 And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them.   32 And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils.   33 And all the city was gathered together at the door.   34 And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him.   35 And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed.   36 And Simon and they that were with him followed after him.   37 And when they had found him, they said unto him, All men seek for thee.   38 And he said unto them, Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth.   39 And he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils.

      In these verses, we have,

      I. A particular account of one miracle that Christ wrought, in the cure of Peter's wife's mother, who was ill of a fever. This passage we had before, in Matthew. Observe,

      1. When Christ had done that which spread his fame throughout all parts, he did not then sit still, as some think that they may lie in bed when their name is up. No, he continued to do good, for that was it he aimed at, and not his own honour. Nay, those who are in reputation, had need be busy and careful to keep it up.

      2. When he came out of the synagogue, where he had taught and healed with a divine authority, yet he conversed familiarly with the poor fishermen that attended him, and did not think it below him. Let the same mind, the same lowly mind, be in us, that was in him.

      3. He went into Peter's house, probably invited thither to such entertainment as a poor fisherman could give him, and he accepted of it. The apostles left all for Christ; so far as that what they had should not hinder them from him, yet not so, but that they might use it for him.

      4. He cured his mother-in-law, who was sick. Wherever Christ comes, he comes to do good, and will be sure to pay richly for his entertainment. Observe, How complete the cure was; when the fever left her, it did not, as usual, leave her weak, but the same hand that healed her, strengthened her, so that she was able to minister to them; the cure is in order to that, to fit for action, that we may minister to Christ, and to those that are his for his sake.

      II. A general account of many cures he wrought--diseases healed, devils expelled. It was on the evening of the sabbath, when the sun did set, or was set; perhaps many scrupled bringing their sick to him, till the sabbath was over, but their weakness therein was no prejudice to them in applying to Christ. Though he proved it lawful to heal on the sabbath days, yet, if any stumbled at it, they were welcome at another time. Now observe,

      1. How numerous the patients were; All the city was gathered at the door, as beggars for a dole. That one cure in the synagogue occasioned this crowding after him. Others speeding well with Christ should quicken us in our enquiries after him. Now the Sun of righteousness rises with healing under his wings; to him shall the gathering of the people be. Observe, How Christ was flocked after in a private house, as well as in the synagogue; wherever he is, there let his servants, his patients, be. And in the evening of the sabbath, when the public worship is over, we must continue our attendance upon Jesus Christ; he healed, as Paul preached, publicly, and from house to house.

      2. How powerful the Physician was; he healed all that were brought to him, though ever so many. Nor was it some one particular disease, that Christ set up for the cure of, but he healed those that were sick of divers diseases, for his word was a panpharmacon--a salve for every sore. And that miracle particularly which he wrought in the synagogue, he repeated in the house at night; for he cast out many devils, and suffered not the devils to speak, for he made them know who he was, and that silenced them. Or, He suffered them not to say that they knew him (so it may be read); he would not permit any more of them to say, as they did (v. 24), I know thee, who thou art.

      III. His retirement to his private devotion (v. 35); He prayed, prayed alone; to set us an example of secret prayer. Though as God he was prayed to, as man he prayed. Though he was glorifying God, and doing good, in his public work, yet he found time to be alone with his Father; and thus it became him to fulfil all righteousness. Now observe,

      1. The time when Christ prayed. (1.) It was in the morning, the morning after the sabbath day. Note, When a sabbath day is over and past, we must not think that we may intermit our devotion till the next sabbath: no, though we go not to the synagogue, we must go to the throne of grace, every day in the week; and the morning after the sabbath particularly, that we may preserve the good impressions of the day. This morning was the morning of the first day of the week, which afterward he sanctified, and made remarkable, by another sort of rising early. (2.) It was early, a great while before day. When others were asleep in their beds, he was praying, as a genuine Son of David, who seeks God early, and directs his prayer in the morning; nay, and at midnight will rise to give thanks. It has been said, The morning is a friend to the Muses--Aurora Musis amica; and it is no less so to the Graces. When our spirits are most fresh and lively, then we should take time for devout exercises. He that is the first and best, ought to have the first and best.

      2. The place where he prayed; He departed into a solitary place, either out of town, or some remote garden or out-building. Though he was in no danger of distraction, or of temptation to vain-glory, yet he retired, to set us an example to his own rule, When thou prayest enter into thy closet. Secret prayer must be made secretly. Those that have the most business in public, and of the best kind, must sometimes be alone with God; must retire into solitude, there to converse with God, and keep up communion with him.

      IV. His return to his public work. The disciples thought they were up early, but found their Master was up before them, and they enquired which way he went, followed him to his solitary place, and there found him at prayer, v. 36, 37. They told him that he was much wanted, that there were a great many patients waiting for him; All men seek for thee. They were proud that their Master was become so popular already, and would have him appear in public, yet more in that place, because it was their own city; and we are apt to be partial to the places we know and are interested in. "No," saith Christ, "Capernaum must not have the monopoly of the Messiah's preaching and miracles. Let us go into the next towns, the villages that lie about here, that I may preach there also, and work miracles there, for therefore came I forth, not to be constantly resident in one place, but to go about doing good." Even the inhabitants of the villages in Israel shall rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord, Judg. v. 11. Observe, Christ had still an eye to the end wherefore he came forth, and closely pursued that; nor will he be drawn by importunity, or the persuasions of his friends, to decline from that; for (v. 39) he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and, to illustrate and confirm his doctrine, he cast out devils. Note, Christ's doctrine is Satan's destruction.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:
The Healing of a Leper.

      40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.   41 And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou clean.   42 And as soon as he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed.   43 And he straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away;   44 And saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man: but go thy way, show thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.   45 But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.

      We have here the story of Christ's cleansing a leper, which we had before, Matt. viii. 2-4. It teaches us,

      1. How to apply ourselves to Christ; come as this leper did, (1.) With great humility; this leper came beseeching him, and kneeling down to him (v. 40); whether giving divine honour to him as God, or rather a less degree of respect as a great Prophet, it teaches us that those who would receive grace and mercy from Christ, must ascribe honour and glory to Christ, and approach to him with humility and reverence. (2.) With a firm belief of his power; Thou canst make me clean. Though Christ's outward appearance was but mean, yet he had this faith in his power, which implies his belief that he was sent of God. He believes it with application, not only in general, Thou cast do every thing (as John xi. 22), but, Thou cast make me clean. Note, What we believe of the power of Christ we must bring home to our particular case; Thou canst do this for me. (3.) With submission to the will of Christ; Lord, if thou wilt. Not as if he had any doubt of Christ's readiness in general to help the distressed, but, with the modesty that became a poor petitioner, he refers his own particular case to him.

      2. What to expect from Christ; that according to our faith it shall be to us. His address is not in the form of prayer, yet Christ answered it as a request. Note, Affectionate professions of faith in Christ, and resignations to him, are the most prevailing petitions for mercy from him, and shall speed accordingly. (1.) Christ was moved with compassion. This is added here, in Mark, to show that Christ's power is employed by his pity for the relief of poor souls; that his reasons are fetched from within himself, and we have nothing in us to recommend us to his favour, but our misery makes us the objects of his mercy. And what he does for us he does with all possible tenderness. (2.) He put forth his hand, and touched him. He exerted his power, and directed it to this creature. In healing souls, Christ toucheth them, 1 Sam. x. 26. When the queen toucheth for the evil, she saith, I touch, God heals; but Christ toucheth and healeth too. (3.) He said, I will, be thou clean. Christ's power was put forth in and by a word, to signify in what way Christ would ordinarily work spiritual cures; He sends his word and heals, Ps. cvii. 20; John xv. 3; xvii. 17. The poor leper put an if upon the will of Christ; If thou wilt; but that doubt is soon put out of doubt; I will. Christ most readily wills favours to those that most readily refer themselves to his will. He was confident of Christ's power; Thou canst make me clean; and Christ will show how much his power is drawn out into act by the faith of his people, and therefore speaks the word as one having authority, Be thou clean. And power accompanied this word, and the cure was perfect in an instant; Immediately his leprosy vanished, and there remained no more sign of it, v. 42.

      3. What to do when we have received mercy from Christ. We must with his favours receive his commands. When Christ had cured him, he strictly charged him; the word here is very significant, embrimesamenos--graviter interminatus--prohibiting with threats. I am apt to think that this refers not to the directions he gave him to conceal it (v. 44), for those are mentioned by themselves; but that this was such a charge as he gave to the impotent man whom he cured, John v. 14, Sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee; for the leprosy was ordinarily the punishment of some particular sinners, as in Miriam's, Gehazi's, and Uzziah's, case; now, when Christ healed him, he warned him, he threatened him with the fatal consequence of it if he should return to sin again. He also appointed him, (1.) To show himself to the priest, that the priest by his own judgment of this leper might be a witness for Christ, that he was the Messiah, Matt. xi. 5. (2.) Till he had done that, not to say any thing of it to any man: this is an instance of the humility of Christ and his self-denial, that he did not seek his own honour, did not strive or cry, Isa. xlii. 2. And it is an example to us, not to seek our own glory, Prov. xxv. 27. He must not proclaim it, because that would much increase the crowd that followed Christ, which he thought was too great already; not as if he were unwilling to do good to all, to as many as came; but he would do it with as little noise as might be, would have no offence given to the government, no disturbance of the public peace, not any thing done that looked like ostentation, or an affecting of popular applause. What to think of the leper's publishing it, and blazing it abroad, I know not; the concealment of the good characters and good works of good men better become them than their friends; nor are we always bound by the modest commands of humble men. The leper ought to have observed his orders; yet, no doubt, it was with a good design that he proclaimed the cure, and it had no other ill effect than that it increased the multitudes which followed Christ, to that degree, that he could no more openly enter into the city; not upon the account of persecution (there was no danger of that yet,) but because the crowd was so great, that the streets would not hold them, which obliged him to go into desert places, to a mountain (ch. iii. 13), to the sea-side, ch. iv. 1. This shows how expedient it was for us, that Christ should go away, and send the Comforter, for his bodily presence could be but in one place at a time; and those that came to him from every quarter, could not get near him; but by his spiritual presence he is with his people wherever they are, and comes to them to every quarter.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

1 sn By the time Mark wrote, the word gospel had become a technical term referring to the preaching about Jesus Christ and God's saving power accomplished through him for all who believe (cf. Rom 1:16).

2 tn The genitive in the phrase τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (tou euangeliou Ihsou Cristou, "the gospel of Jesus Christ") could be translated as either a subjective genitive ("the gospel which Jesus brings [or proclaims]") or an objective genitive ("the gospel about Jesus Christ"). Either is grammatically possible. This is possibly an instance of a plenary genitive (see ExSyn 119-21; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, §§36-39). If so, an interplay between the two concepts is intended: The gospel which Jesus proclaims is in fact the gospel about himself.

3 tc א* Θ 28 l2211 pc sams Or lack υἱοῦ θεοῦ (Juiou qeou, "son of God"), while virtually all the rest of the witnesses have the words (A Ë1,13 33 Ï also have τοῦ [tou] before θεοῦ), so the evidence seems to argue for the authenticity of the words. Most likely, the words were omitted by accident in some witnesses, since the last four words of v. 1, in uncial script, would have looked like this: iu_c_r_u_u_u_q_u_. With all the successive upsilons an accidental deletion is likely. Further, the inclusion of υἱοῦ θεοῦ here finds its complement in 15:39, where the centurion claims that Jesus was υἱὸς θεοῦ (Juios qeou, "son of God"). Even though א is in general one of the best NT mss, its testimony is not quite as preeminent in this situation. There are several other instances in which it breaks up chains of genitives ending in ου (cf., e.g., Acts 28:31; Col 2:2; Heb 12:2; Rev 12:14; 15:7; 22:1), showing that there is a significantly higher possibility of accidental scribal omission in a case like this. This christological inclusio parallels both Matthew ("Immanuel...God with us" in 1:23/"I am with you" in 28:20) and John ("the Word was God" in 1:1/"My Lord and my God" in 20:28), probably reflecting nascent christological development and articulation.

sn The first verse of Mark's Gospel appears to function as a title: The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. It is not certain, however, whether Mark intended it to refer to the entire Gospel, to the ministry of John the Baptist, or through the use of the term beginning (ἀρχή, arch) to allude to Genesis 1:1 (in the Greek Bible, LXX). The most likely option is that the statement as a whole is an allusion to Genesis 1:1 and that Mark is saying that with the "good news" of the coming of Christ, God is commencing a "new beginning."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

4 tc Instead of "in Isaiah the prophet" the majority of mss read "in the prophets" (A W Ë13 Ï Irlat). Except for Irenaeus (2nd century), the earliest evidence for this is thus from the 5th (or possibly late 4th) century (W A). The difficulty of Irenaeus is that he wrote in Greek but has been preserved largely in Latin. His Greek remains have "in Isaiah the prophet." Only the later Latin translation has "in the prophets." The KJV reading is thus in harmony with the majority of late mss. On the other hand, the witnesses for "in Isaiah the prophet" (either with the article before Isaiah or not) are early and geographically widespread: א B D L Δ Θ Ë1 33 565 700 892 1241 2427 al syp co Ir. This evidence runs deep into the 2nd century, is widespread, and is found in the most important Alexandrian, Western, and Caesarean witnesses. The "Isaiah" reading has a better external pedigree in every way. It has the support of the earliest and best witnesses from all the texttypes that matter. Moreover it is the harder reading, since the quotation in the first part of the verse appears to be from Exod 23:20 and Mal 3:1, with the quotation from Isa 40:3 coming in the next verse. The reading of the later mss seems motivated by a desire to resolve this difficulty.

5 sn The opening lines of the quotation are from Exod 23:20; Mal 3:1. Here is the forerunner who points the way to the arrival of God's salvation. His job is to prepare and guide the people, as the cloud did for Israel in the desert.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

6 sn This call to "make his paths straight" in this context is probably an allusion to preparation through repentance.

7 sn A quotation from Isa 40:3.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,4:

8 tn Or "desert."

9 tn While Matthew and Luke consistently use the noun βαπτίστης (baptisths, "[the] Baptist") to refer to John, as a kind of a title, Mark prefers the substantival participle ὁ βαπτίζων (Jo baptizwn, "the one who baptizes, the baptizer") to describe him (only twice does he use the noun [Mark 6:25; 8:28]).

10 sn A baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins was a call for preparation for the arrival of the Lord's salvation. To participate in this baptism was a recognition of the need for God's forgiveness with a sense that one needed to live differently as a response to it.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,5:

11 tn Grk "And the whole Judean countryside." Mark uses the Greek conjunction καί (kai) at numerous places in his Gospel to begin sentences and paragraphs. This practice is due to Semitic influence and reflects in many cases the use of the Hebrew ו (vav) which is used in OT narrative, much as it is here, to carry the narrative along. Because in contemporary English style it is not acceptable to begin every sentence with "and," καί was often left untranslated or rendered as "now," "so," "then," or "but" depending on the context. When left untranslated it has not been noted. When given an alternative translation, this is usually indicated by a note.

12 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

13 tn Grk "they were being baptized by him." The passive construction has been rendered as active in the translation for the sake of English style.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,6:

14 sn John's lifestyle was in stark contrast to many of the religious leaders of Jerusalem who lived in relative ease and luxury. While his clothing and diet were indicative of someone who lived in the desert, they also depicted him in his role as God's prophet (cf. Zech 13:4); his appearance is similar to the Prophet Elijah (2 Kgs 1:8). Locusts and wild honey were a common diet in desert regions and locusts (dried insects) are listed in Lev 11:22 among the "clean" foods.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,7:

15 tn Grk "proclaimed, saying." The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

16 tn Grk "of whom I am not worthy."

sn The humility of John is evident in the statement I am not worthy. This was considered one of the least worthy tasks of a slave, and John did not consider himself worthy to do even that for the one to come, despite the fact he himself was a prophet.

17 tn The term refers to the leather strap or thong used to bind a sandal. This is often viewed as a collective singular and translated as a plural, "the straps of his sandals," but it may be more emphatic to retain the singular here.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:

18 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "now" to indicate the transition to a new topic.

19 map For location see Map1-D3; Map2-C2; Map3-D5; Map4-C1; Map5-G3.

20 tn "River" is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,10:

21 tn Grk "and immediately coming up out of the water, he saw." The present participle has been translated temporally, with the subject (Jesus) specified for clarity.

22 tn Or "sky." The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated "sky" or "heaven," depending on the context. The same word is used in v. 11.

23 sn The phrase like a dove is a descriptive comparison. The Spirit is not a dove, but descended like one in some sort of bodily representation.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,11:

24 tn Grk "my beloved Son," or "my Son, the beloved [one]." The force of ἀγαπητός (agaphtos) is often "pertaining to one who is the only one of his or her class, but at the same time is particularly loved and cherished" (L&N 58.53; cf. also BDAG 7 s.v. 1).

25 tn Or "with you I am well pleased."

sn The allusions in the remarks of the text recall Ps 2:7a; Isa 42:1 and either Isa 41:8 or, less likely, Gen 22:12,16. God is marking out Jesus as his chosen one (the meaning of "[in you I take] great delight"), but it may well be that this was a private experience that only Jesus and John saw and heard (cf. John 1:32-33).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,13:

26 sn The forty days may allude to the experience of Moses (Exod 34:28), Elijah (1 Kgs 19:8, 15), or David and Goliath (1 Sam 17:16).

27 tn Grk "And he."

28 tn Grk "were serving him," "were ministering to him."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:

29 tn Or "arrested," "taken into custody" (see L&N 37.12).

30 tc Most witnesses, especially later ones (A D W Ï lat), have τῆς βασιλείας (ths basileias) between τὸ εὐαγγέλιον (to euangelion) and τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou): "the gospel of the kingdom of God." On the one hand, it is perhaps possible that τῆς βασιλείας was omitted to conform the expression to that which is found in the epistles (cf. Rom 1:1; 15:16; 2 Cor 11:7; 1 Thess 2:2, 8, 9; 1 Pet 4:17). On the other hand, this expression, "the gospel of God," occurs nowhere else in the Gospels, while "the gospel of the kingdom" is a Matthean expression (Matt 4:23; 9:35; 24:14), and "kingdom of God" is pervasive in the synoptic Gospels (occurring over 50 times). Scribes would thus be more prone to add τῆς βασιλείας than to omit it. Further, the external support for the shorter reading (א B L Θ Ë1,13 28* 33 565 579 892 2427 sa) is significantly stronger than that for the longer reading. There is little doubt, therefore, that the shorter reading is authentic.

31 tn The genitive in the phrase τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ (to euangelion tou qeou, "the gospel of God") could be translated as either a subjective genitive ("the gospel which God brings") or an objective genitive ("the gospel about God"). Either is grammatically possible. This is possibly an instance of a plenary genitive (see ExSyn 119-21; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, §§36-39). If so, an interplay between the two concepts is intended: The gospel which God brings is in fact the gospel about himself.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,15:

32 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

33 sn The kingdom of God is a reference to the sovereign activity of God as he rules over his creation and brings his plans to realization.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,16:

34 sn This is a parenthetical comment by the author.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,17:

35 tn The Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, thus "people."

sn The kind of fishing envisioned was net - not line - fishing (cf. v. 16; cf. also BDAG 55 s.v. ἀμφιβάλλω, ἀμφίβληστρον) which involved a circular net that had heavy weights around its perimeter. The occupation of fisherman was labor-intensive. The imagery of using a lure and a line (and waiting for the fish to strike) is thus foreign to this text. Rather, the imagery of a fisherman involved much strain, long hours, and often little results. Jesus' point may have been one or more of the following: the strenuousness of evangelism, the work ethic that it required, persistence and dedication to the task (often in spite of minimal results), the infinite value of the new "catch" (viz., people), and perhaps an eschatological theme of snatching people from judgment (cf. W. L. Lane, Mark [NICNT], 67). If this last motif is in view, then catching people is the opposite of catching fish: The fish would be caught, killed, cooked, and eaten; people would be caught so as to remove them from eternal destruction and to give them new life.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,18:

36 sn The expression followed him pictures discipleship, which means that to learn from Jesus is to follow him as the guiding priority of one's life.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,19:

37 tn Or "a boat." The phrase ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ (en tw ploiw) can either refer to a generic boat, some boat (as it seems to do in Matt 4:21); or it can refer to "their" boat, implying possession. Mark assumes a certain preunderstanding on the part of his readers about the first four disciples and hence the translation "their boat" is justified (cf. also v. 20 in which the "hired men" indicates that Zebedee's family owned the boats).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

38 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "then" to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

39 sn Capernaum was a town located on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region, and it became the hub of operations for Jesus' Galilean ministry.

map For location see Map1-D2; Map2-C3; Map3-B2.

40 tn The Greek word εὐθύς (euqus, often translated "immediately" or "right away") has not been translated here. It sometimes occurs with a weakened, inferential use (BDAG 406 s.v. 2), not contributing significantly to the flow of the narrative. For further discussion, see R. J. Decker, Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect (SBG 10), 73-77.

41 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

42 sn The synagogue was a place for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (cf. Luke 8:41). Though its origin is not entirely clear, it seems to have arisen in the postexilic community during the intertestamental period. A town could establish a synagogue if there were at least ten men. In normative Judaism of the NT period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present. (See the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2.) First came the law, then the prophets, then someone was asked to speak on the texts. Jesus undoubtedly took the opportunity on this occasion to speak about his person and mission, and its relationship to Old Testament fulfillment.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

43 tn Grk "They."

44 sn Jesus' teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim; he taught with authority. A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one's point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.

45 tn Or "the scribes." The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as "scribe" does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean "professional copyist," if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus "expert in the law" comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

46 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.

47 tn Grk "he cried out, saying." The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

48 tn Grk "What to us and to you?" This is an idiom meaning, "We have nothing to do with one another," or "Why bother us!" The phrase τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (ti Jhmin kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the OT had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say "What to me and to you?" meaning, "What have I done to you that you should do this to me?" (Judg 11:12, 2 Chr 35:21, 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his own, he could say to the one asking him, "What to me and to you?" meaning, "That is your business, how am I involved?" (2 Kgs 3:13, Hos 14:8). Option (1) implies hostility, while option (2) merely implies disengagement. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: "Leave me alone...." For a very similar expression see Lk 8:28 and (in a different context) John 2:4.

49 sn The confession of Jesus as the Holy One here is significant, coming from an unclean spirit. Jesus, as the Holy One of God, who bears God's Spirit and is the expression of holiness, comes to deal with uncleanness and unholiness.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

50 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "but" to indicate the contrast present in this context.

51 tn Grk "rebuked him, saying." The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

52 sn The command Come out of him! is an example of Jesus' authority (see v. 32). Unlike other exorcists, Jesus did not use magical incantations nor did he invoke anyone else's name.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

53 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

54 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "now" to indicate the transition to a new topic.

55 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,30:

56 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

57 tn Grk "him"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,31:

58 tn The imperfect verb is taken ingressively here.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

59 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

60 sn Note how the author distinguishes healing from exorcism here, implying that the two are not identical.

61 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "but" to indicate the contrast present in this context.

62 sn Why Jesus would not permit the demons to speak is much discussed. Two possibilities are (1) the mere source of the testimony (demonic) and (2) that the title, with its political implications, may have had elements that Jesus wished to avoid until the full nature of his mission was clarified.

63 tc The mss vary on what is read at the end of v. 34. Some have "they knew him to be the Christ," with various Greek constructions (ᾔδεισαν αὐτὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι [hdeisan auton Criston einai] in B L W Θ Ë1 28 33vid 565 2427 al; ᾔδεισαν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι [hdeisan ton Criston auton einai] in [א2] C [Ë13 700] 892 1241 [1424] pc); codex D has "they knew him and he healed many who were sick with various diseases and drove out many demons," reproducing exactly the first half of the verse. These first two longer readings are predictable expansions to an enticingly brief statement; the fact that there are significant variations on the word order and presence or absence of τόν argues against their authenticity as well. D's reading is a palpable error of sight. The reading adopted in the translation is supported by א* A 0130 Ï lat. This support, though hardly overwhelming in itself, in combination with strong internal evidence, renders the shorter reading fairly certain.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

64 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "then" to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

65 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

66 tn The imperfect προσηύχετο (proshuceto) implies some duration to the prayer.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

67 tn Grk "And he said to them."

68 tn Grk "Because for this purpose I have come forth."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,39:

69 tn Grk "And." Here καί (kai) has been translated as "so" to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

70 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:

71 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as "now" to indicate the transition to a new topic.

72 sn The ancient term for leprosy covers a wider array of conditions than what we call leprosy today. A leper was totally ostracized from society until he was declared cured (Lev 13:45-46).

73 tn This is a third class condition. The report portrays the leper making no presumptions about whether Jesus will heal him or not.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,41:

74 tc The reading found in almost the entire NT ms tradition is σπλαγχνισθείς (splancnisqei", "moved with compassion"). Codex Bezae (D), {1358}, and a few Latin mss (a ff2 r1*) here read ὀργισθείς (ojrgisqei", "moved with anger"). It is more difficult to account for a change from "moved with compassion" to "moved with anger" than it is for a copyist to soften "moved with anger" to "moved with compassion," making the decision quite difficult. B. M. Metzger (TCGNT 65) suggests that "moved with anger" could have been prompted by 1:43, "Jesus sent the man away with a very strong warning." It also could have been prompted by the man's seeming doubt about Jesus' desire to heal him (v. 40). As well, it is difficult to explain why scribes would be prone to soften the text here but not in Mark 3:5 or 10:14 (where Jesus is also said to be angry or indignant). Thus, in light of diverse mss supporting "moved with compassion," and at least a plausible explanation for ὀργισθείς as arising from the other reading, it is perhaps best to adopt σπλαγχνισθείς as the original reading. Nevertheless, a decision in this case is not easy. For the best arguments for ὀργισθείς, however, see M. A. Proctor, "The 'Western' Text of Mark 1:41: A Case for the Angry Jesus" (Ph.D. diss., Baylor University, 1999).

75 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

76 sn Touched. This touch would have rendered Jesus ceremonially unclean (Lev 14:46; also Mishnah, m. Nega'im 3.1; 11.1; 12.1; 13.6-12).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,43:

77 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

78 tn Grk "him"; the referent (the man who was healed) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,44:

79 tn Grk "And after warning him, he immediately sent him away and told him."

80 sn The silence ordered by Jesus was probably meant to last only until the cleansing took place with the priests and sought to prevent Jesus' healings from becoming the central focus of the people's reaction to him. See also 1:34; 3:12; 5:43; 7:36; 8:26, 30; and 9:9 for other cases where Jesus asks for silence concerning him and his ministry.

81 sn On the phrase bring the offering that Moses commanded see Lev 14:1-32.

82 tn Or "as an indictment against them"; or "as proof to the people." This phrase could be taken as referring to a positive witness to the priests, a negative testimony against them, or as a testimony to the community that the man had indeed been cured. In any case, the testimony shows that Jesus is healing and ministering to those in need.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,45:

83 tn Grk "he"; the referent (the man who was healed) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

84 tn Grk "he"; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

85 tn Grk "and"; καί (kai) often has a mildly contrastive force, as here.

86 tn The imperfect verb has been translated iteratively.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,1:

The beginning (αρχη). There is no article in the Greek. It is possible that the phrase served as a heading or title for the paragraph about the ministry of the Baptist or as the superscription for the whole Gospel (Bruce) placed either by Mark or a scribe. And then the Gospel of Jesus Christ means the Message about Jesus Christ (objective genitive). The word Gospel here (ευαγγελιον) comes close to meaning the record itself as told by Mark. Swete notes that each writer has a different starting point (αρχη). Mark, as the earliest form of the evangelic tradition, begins with the work of the Baptist, Matthew with the ancestry and birth of the Messiah, Luke with the birth of the Baptist, John with the Preincarnate Logos, Paul with the foundation of each of the churches (Php 4:15).

The Son of God (Hυιου θεου). Aleph 28, 255 omit these words, but B, D, L, have them and the great mass of the manuscripts have υιου του θεου. If this is a heading added to what Mark wrote, the heading may have existed early in two forms, one with, one without "Son of God." If Mark wrote the words, there is no reason to doubt the genuineness since he uses the phrase elsewhere.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,2:

In Isaiah, the prophet (εν τω Εσαια τω προφητη). The quotation comes from Mal 3:1 and Isa 40:3. The Western and Neutral classes read Isaiah, the Alexandrian and Syrian, "the prophets," an evident correction because part of it is from Malachi. But Isaiah is mentioned as the chief of the prophets. It was common to combine quotations from the prophets in testimonia and catenae (chains of quotations). This is Mark's only prophetic quotation on his own account (Bruce).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,3:

The voice of one crying (φονη βοωντος). God is coming to his people to deliver them from their captivity in Babylon. So the prophet cries like a voice in the wilderness to make ready for the coming of God. When the committee from the Sanhedrin came to ask John who he was, he used this very language of Isaiah (Joh 1:23). He was only a voice, but we can still hear the echo of that voice through the corridor of the centuries.

Paths straight (ευθειας τας τριβους). Automobile highways today well illustrate the wonderful Persian roads for the couriers of the king and then for the king himself. The Roman Empire was knit together by roads, some of which survive today. John had a high and holy mission as the forerunner of the Messiah.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,4:

John came (εγενετο Ιωανης). His coming was an epoch (εγενετο), not a mere event (ην). His coming was in accordance with the prophetic picture (καθως, 1:2). Note the same verb about John in Joh 1:6. The coming of John the Baptizer was the real beginning of the spoken message about Christ. He is described as

the baptizing one (ο απτιζων) in the wilderness (εν τη ερημω). The baptizing took place in the River Jordan (Mr 1:5,9) which was included in the general term the wilderness or the deserted region of Judea.

Preached the baptism of repentance (κηρυσσων βαπτισμα μετανοιας). Heralded a repentance kind of baptism (genitive case, genus case), a baptism marked by repentance. See on Mt 3:2 for discussion of repent, an exceedingly poor rendering of John's great word μετανοιας. He called upon the Jews to change their minds and to turn from their sins, "confessing their sins" (εξομολογουμενο τας αμαρτιας αυτων). See Mt 3:16. The public confessions produced a profound impression as they would now.

Unto remission of sins (εις αφεσιν αμαρτιων). This is a difficult phrase to translate accurately. Certainly John did not mean that the baptism was the means of obtaining the forgiveness of their sins or necessary to the remission of sins. The trouble lies in the use of εις which sometimes is used when purpose is expressed, but sometimes when there is no such idea as in Mt 10:41 and Mt 12:41. Probably "with reference to" is as good a translation here as is possible. The baptism was on the basis of the repentance and confession of sin and, as Paul later explained (Ro 6:4), was a picture of the death to sin and resurrection to new life in Christ. This symbol was already in use by the Jews for proselytes who became Jews. John is treating the Jewish nation as pagans who need to repent, to confess their sins, and to come back to the kingdom of God. The baptism in the Jordan was the objective challenge to the people.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,5:

Then went out unto him (εξεπορευετο προς αυτον). Imperfect indicative describing the steady stream of people who kept coming to the baptism (εβαπτιζοντο, imperfect passive indicative, a wonderful sight).

In the river Jordan (εν τω Ιορδανη ποταμω). In the Jordan river, literally.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,6:

Clothed with camel's hair (ενδεδυμενος τριχας καμηλου). Matthew (Mt 3:4) has it a garment (ενδυμα) of camel's hair. Mark has it in the accusative plural the object of the perfect passive participle retained according to a common Greek idiom. It was, of course, not camel's skin, but rough cloth woven of camel's hair. For the locusts and wild honey, see on Mt 3:4. Dried locusts are considered palatable and the wild honey, or "mountain honey" as some versions give it (μελ αγριον), was bountiful in the clefts of the rocks. Some Bedouins make their living yet by gathering this wild honey out of the rocks.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,7:

Mightier than I (ο ισχυροτερος μου). In each of the Synoptics. Gould calls it a skeptical depreciation of himself by John. But it was sincere on John's part and he gives a reason for it.

The Latchet (τον ιμαντα). The thong of the sandal which held it together. When the guest comes into the house, performed by a slave before one enters the bath. Mark alone gives this touch.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,8:

With water (υδατ). So Luke (Lu 3:16) the locative case,

in water . Matthew (Mt 3:11) has εν (in), both with (in) water and the Holy Spirit. The water baptism by John was a symbol of the spiritual baptism by Jesus.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,9:

In the Jordan (εις τον Ιορδανην). So in verse 10, εκ του υδατος, out of the water, after the baptism into the Jordan. Mark is as fond of "straightway" (ευθυς) as Matthew is of "then" (τοτε).

Rent asunder (σχιζομενους). Split like a garment, present passive participle. Jesus saw the heavens parting as he came up out of the water, a more vivid picture than the "opened" in Mt 3:16 and Lu 3:21. Evidently the Baptist saw all this and the Holy Spirit coming down upon Jesus as a dove because he later mentions it (Joh 1:32). The Cerinthian Gnostics took the dove to mean the heavenly aeon Christ that here descended upon the man Jesus and remained with him till the Cross when it left him, a sort of forecast of the modern distinction between the Jesus of history and the theological Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,11:

Thou art (συ ε). So Lu 3:22. Mt 3:17 has

this is (ουτος εστιν) which see. So both Mark and Luke have "in thee," while Matthew has "in whom."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,12:

Driveth him forth (αυτον εκβαλλε). Vivid word, bolder than Matthew's "was led up" (ανηχθη) and Luke's "was led" (ηγετο). It is the same word employed in the driving out of demons (Mr 1:34,39). Mark has here "straightway" where Matthew has "then" (see on verse 9). The forty days in the wilderness were under the direct guidance of the Holy Spirit. The entire earthly life of Jesus was bound up with the Holy Spirit from his birth to his death and resurrection.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,13:

With the wild beasts (μετα τωυ θηριων). Mark does not give the narrative of the three temptations in Matthew and Luke (apparently from the Logia and originally, of course, from Jesus himself). But Mark adds this little touch about the wild beasts in the wilderness. It was the haunt at night of the wolf, the boar, the hyena, the jackal, the leopard. It was lonely and depressing in its isolation and even dangerous. Swete notes that in Ps 90:13 the promise of victory over the wild beasts comes immediately after that of angelic guardianship cited by Satan in Mt 4:6. The angels did come and minister (διηκονουν), imperfect tense, kept it up till he was cheered and strengthened. Dr. Tristram observes that some Abyssinian Christians are in the habit of coming to the Quarantania during Lent and fasting forty days on the summit amid the ruins of its ancient cells and chapels where they suppose Jesus was tempted. But we are all tempted of the devil in the city even worse than in the desert.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,14:

Jesus came into Galilee (ηλθεν ο Ιησους εις την Γαλιλαιαν). Here Mark begins the narrative of the active ministry of Jesus and he is followed by Matthew and Luke. Mark undoubtedly follows the preaching of Peter. But for the Fourth Gospel we should not know of the year of work in various parts of the land (Perea, Galilee, Judea, Samaria) preceding the Galilean ministry. John supplements the Synoptic Gospels at this point as often. The arrest of John had much to do with the departure of Jesus from Judea to Galilee (Joh 4:1-4).

Preaching the gospel of God (κηρυσσων το ευαγγελιον του θεου). It is the subjective genitive, the gospel that comes from God. Swete observes that repentance (μετανοια) is the keynote in the message of the Baptist as gospel (ευαγγελιον) is with Jesus. But Jesus took the same line as John and proclaimed both repentance and the arrival of the kingdom of God. Mark adds to Matthew's report the words "the time is fulfilled" (πεπληρωτα ο καιρος). It is a significant fact that John looks backward to the promise of the coming of the Messiah and signalizes the fulfilment as near at hand (perfect passive indicative). It is like Paul's fulness of time (πληρωμα του χρονου) in Ga 4:4 and fulness of the times (πληρωμα τον καιρων) in Eph 1:10 when he employs the word καιρος, opportunity or crisis as here in Mark rather than the more general term χρονος. Mark adds here also: "and believe in the gospel" (κα πιστευετε εν τω ευαγγελιω). Both repent and believe in the gospel. Usually faith in Jesus (or God) is expected as in John 14:1. But this crisis called for faith in the message of Jesus that the Messiah had come. He did not use here the term Messiah, for it had come to have political connotations that made its use at present unwise. But the kingdom of God had arrived with the presence of the King. It does make a difference what one believes. Belief or disbelief in the message of Jesus made a sharp cleavage in those who heard him. "Faith in the message was the first step; a creed of some kind lies at the basis of confidence in the Person of Christ, and the occurrence of the phrase πιστυετε εν τω ευαγγελιω in the oldest record of the teaching of our Lord is a valuable witness to this fact" (Swete).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,16:

And passing along by the Sea of Galilee (κα παραγων παρα την θαλασσαν της Γαλιλαιας). Mark uses παρα (along, beside) twice and makes the picture realistic. He catches this glimpse of Christ in action. Casting a

net (αμφιβαλλοντας). Literally casting on both sides, now on one side, now on the other. Matthew (Mt 4:18) has a different phrase which see. There are two papyri examples of the verb αμφιβαλλω, one verb absolutely for fishing as here, the other with the accusative. It is fishing with a net, making a cast, a haul. These four disciples were fishermen (αλιεις) and were

partners (μετοχο) as Luke states (Lu 5:7).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,17:

Become (γενεσθα). Mark has this word not in Matthew. It would be a slow and long process, but Jesus could and would do it. He would undertake to make fishers of men out of fishermen. Preachers are made out of laymen who are willing to leave their business for service for Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,19:

A little further (ολιγον). A Marcan detail.

Mending their nets (καταρτιζοντας τα δικτυα). See on Mt 4:21. Getting ready that they might succeed better at the next haul.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,20:

With the hired servants (μετα των μισθωτων). One hired for wages (μισθος), a very old Greek word. Zebedee and his two sons evidently had an extensive business in co-operation with Andrew and Simon (Lu 5:7,10). Mark alone has this detail of the hired servants left with Zebedee. They left the boat and their father (Mt 4:22) with the hired servants. The business would go on while they left all (Lu 5:11) and became permanent followers of Jesus. Many a young man has faced precisely this problem when he entered the ministry. Could he leave father and mother, brothers and sisters, while he went forth to college and seminary to become a fisher of men? Not the least of the sacrifices made in the education of young preachers is that made by the home folks who have additional burdens to bear because the young preacher is no longer a bread-winner at home. Most young preachers joyfully carry on such burdens after entering the ministry.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,21:

And taught (εδιδασκεν). Inchoative imperfect, began to teach as soon as he entered the synagogue in Capernaum on the sabbath. The synagogue in Capernaum afforded the best opening for the teaching of Jesus. He had now made Capernaum (Tell Hum) his headquarters after the rejection in Nazareth as explained in Lu 4:16-31 and Mt 4:13-16. The ruins of this synagogue have been discovered and there is even talk of restoring the building since the stones are in a good state of preservation. Jesus both taught (διδασκω) and preached (κηρυσσω) in the Jewish synagogues as opportunity was offered by the chief or leader of the synagogue (αρχισυναγωγος). The service consisted of prayer, praise, reading of scripture, and exposition by any rabbi or other competent person. Often Paul was invited to speak at such meetings. In Lu 4:20 Jesus gave back the roll of Isaiah to the attendant or beadle (τω υπηρετη) whose business it was to bring out the precious manuscript and return it to its place. Jesus was a preacher of over a year when he began to teach in the Capernaum synagogue. His reputation had preceded him (Lu 4:14).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,22:

They were astonished (εξεπλησσοντο). Pictorial imperfect as in Lu 4:32 describing the amazement of the audience, "meaning strictly to strike a person out of his senses by some strong feeling, such as fear, wonder, or even joy" (Gould).

And not as their scribes (κα ουχ ως ο γραμματεις). Lu 4:32 has only "with authority" (εν εξουσια). Mark has it "as having authority" (ως εχων εξουσιαν). He struck a note not found by the rabbi. They quoted other rabbis and felt their function to be expounders of the traditions which they made a millstone around the necks of the people. By so doing they set aside the word and will of God by their traditions and petty legalism (Mr 7:9,13). They were casuists and made false interpretations to prove their punctilious points of external etiquette to the utter neglect of the spiritual reality. The people noticed at once that here was a personality who got his power (authority) direct from God, not from the current scribes. "Mark omits much, and is in many ways a meagre Gospel, but it makes a distinctive contribution to the evangelic history in showing by a few realistic touches (this one of them) the remarkable personality of Jesus" (Bruce). See on Mt 7:29 for the like impression made by the Sermon on the Mount where the same language occurs. The chief controversy in Christ's life was with these scribes, the professional teachers of the oral law and mainly Pharisees. At once the people see that Jesus stands apart from the old group. He made a sensation in the best sense of that word. There was a buzz of excitement at the new teacher that was increased by the miracle that followed the sermon.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,23:

With an unclean spirit (εν πνευματ ακαθαρτω). This use of εν "with" is common in the Septuagint like the Hebrew be, but it occurs also in the papyri. It is the same idiom as "in Christ," "in the Lord" so common with Paul. In English we speak of our being in love, in drink, in his cups, etc. The unclean spirit was in the man and the man in the unclean spirit, a man in the power of the unclean spirit. Luke has "having," the usual construction. See on Mt 22:43. Unclean spirit is used as synonymous with

demon (δαιμονιον). It is the idea of estrangement from God (Zec 13:2). The whole subject of demonology is difficult, but no more so than the problem of the devil. Jesus distinguishes between the man and the unclean spirit. Usually physical or mental disease accompanied the possession by demons. One wonders today if the degenerates and confirmed criminals so common now are not under the power of demons. The only cure for confirmed criminals seems to be conversion (a new heart).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,24:

What have we to do with thee? (τ ημιν κα σοι?) The same idiom in Mt 8:29. Ethical dative. Nothing in common between the demon and Jesus. Note "we." The man speaks for the demon and himself, double personality. The recognition of Jesus by the demons may surprise us since the rabbis (the ecclesiastics) failed to do so. They call Jesus "The Holy One of God" (ο αγιος του θεου). Hence the demon feared that Jesus was come to destroy him and the man in his power. In Mt 8:29 the demon calls Jesus "Son of God." Later the disciples will call Jesus "The Holy One of God" (Joh 6:69). The demon cried out aloud (ανεκραξεν, late first aorist form, ανεκραγεν, common second aorist) so that all heard the strange testimony to Jesus. The man says "I know" (οιδα), correct text, some manuscripts "we know" (οιδαμεν), including the demon.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,25:

Hold thy peace (φιμωθητ). First aorist passive imperative of φιμοω. "Be quiet," Moffatt translates it. But it is a more vigorous word, "Be muzzled" like an ox. So literally in De 25:4, 1Co 9:9; 1Ti 5:18. It is common in Josephus, Lucian, and the LXX. See Mt 22:12,34. Gould renders it "Shut up." "Shut your mouth" would be too colloquial. Vincent suggests "gagged," but that is more the idea of επιστομαζειν in Tit 1:11, to stop the mouth.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,26:

Tearing him (σπαραξαν αυτον). Margin,

convulsing him like a spasm. Medical writers use the word for the rotating of the stomach. Lu 4:35 adds "when the demon had thrown him down in the midst." Mark mentions the "loud voice" (φονη μεγαλη), a screech, in fact. It was a moment of intense excitement.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,27:

They questioned among themselves (συνζητειν αυτους). By look and word.

A new teaching (διδαχη καινη). One surprise had followed another this day. The teaching was fresh (καινη), original as the dew of the morning on the blossoms just blown. That was a novelty in that synagogue where only staid and stilted rabbinical rules had been heretofore droned out. This new teaching charmed the people, but soon will be rated as heresy by the rabbis. And it was with authority (κατ' εξουσιαν). It is not certain whether the phrase is to be taken with "new teaching," "It's new teaching with authority behind it," as Moffatt has it, or with the verb; "with authority commandeth even the unclean spirits" (κα τοις πνευμασιν τοις ακαθαρτοις επιτασσε). The position is equivocal and may be due to the fact that "Mark gives the incoherent and excited remarks of the crowd in this natural form" (Swete). But the most astonishing thing of all is that the demons "obey him" (υπακουουσιν αυτω). The people were accustomed to the use of magical formulae by the Jewish exorcists (Mt 12:27; Ac 19:13), but here was something utterly different. Simon Magus could not understand how Simon Peter could do his miracles without some secret trick and even offered to buy it (Ac 8:19).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,28:

The report of him (η ακοη αυτου). Vulgate, rumor. See Mt 14:1; 24:6. They had no telephones, telegraphs, newspapers or radio, but news has a marvellous way of spreading by word of mouth. The fame of this new teacher went out "everywhere" (πανταχου) throughout all Galilee.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,29:

The house of Simon and Andrew (την οικιαν Σιμωνος κα Ανδρεου). Peter was married and both he and Andrew lived together in "Peter's house" (Mt 8:14) with Peter's wife and mother-in-law. Peter was evidently married before he began to follow Jesus. Later his wife accompanied him on his apostolic journeys (1Co 9:5). This incident followed immediately after the service in the synagogue on the sabbath. All the Synoptics give it. Mark heard Peter tell it as it occurred in his own house where Jesus made his home while in Capernaum. Each Gospel gives touches of its own to the story. Mark has "lay sick of a fever " (κατεκειτο πυρεσσουσα), lay prostrate burning with fever. Matthew puts it "stretched out (βεβλημενην) with a fever." Luke has it "holden with a great fever" (ην συνεχομενη πυρετω μεγαλω), a technical medical phrase. They all mention the instant recovery and ministry without any convalescence. Mark and Matthew speak of the touch of Jesus on her hand and Luke speaks of Jesus standing over her like a doctor. It was a tender scene.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,32:

When the sun did set (οτε εδυσεν ο ηλιος). This picturesque detail Mark has besides "at even" (οψιας γενομενης, genitive absolute, evening having come). Matthew has "when even was come," Luke "when the sun was setting." The sabbath ended at sunset and so the people were now at liberty to bring their sick to Jesus. The news about the casting out of the demon and the healing of Peter's mother-in-law had spread all over Capernaum. They brought them in a steady stream (imperfect tense, εφερον). Luke (Lu 4:40) adds that Jesus laid his hand on every one of them as they passed by in grateful procession.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,33:

At the door (προς την θυραν). At the door of Peter's house. The whole city was gathered together there (ˆn episunˆgmenˆ, past perfect passive periphrastic indicative, double compound επ and συν). Mark alone mentions this vivid detail. He is seeing with Peter's eyes again. Peter no doubt watched the beautiful scene with pride and gratitude as Jesus stood in the door and healed the great crowds in the glory of that sunset. He loved to tell it afterwards.

Divers diseases (ποικιλαις νοσοις). See Mt 4:24 about ποικιλος meaning many-coloured, variegated. All sorts of sick folk came and were healed.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,34:

Devils (δαιμονια). Demons it should be translated always.

Suffered not (ουκ ηφιεν). Would not allow, imperfect tense of continued refusal. The reason given is "because they knew him" (οτ ηιδεισαν αυτον). Whether "to be Christ" (Χριστον εινα) is genuine or not, that is the meaning and is a direct reference to 1:24 when in the synagogue the demon recognized and addressed Jesus as the Holy One of God. Testimony from such a source was not calculated to help the cause of Christ with the people. He had told the other demon to be silent. See on Mt 8:29 for discussion of the word demon.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,35:

In the morning, a great while before day (πρω εννυχα λιαν). Luke has only "when it was day" (γενομενης ημερας). The word πρω in Mark means the last watch of the night from three to six A.M. Εννυχα λιαν means in the early part of the watch while it was still a bit dark (cf. Mr 16:2 λιαν πρω).

Rose up and went out (αναστας εξηλθεν). Out of the house and out of the city, off (απηλθεν, even if not genuine, possibly a conflate reading from 6:32,46). "Flight from the unexpected reality into which His ideal conception of His calling had brought Him" (H.J. Holtzmann). Gould notes that Jesus seems to retreat before his sudden popularity, to prayer with the Father "that he might not be ensnared by this popularity, or in any way induced to accept the ways of ease instead of duty." But Jesus also had a plan for a preaching tour of Galilee and "He felt He could not begin too soon. He left in the night, fearing opposition from the people" (Bruce). Surely many a popular preacher can understand this mood of Jesus when in the night he slips away to a solitary place for prayer. Jesus knew what it was to spend a whole night in prayer. He knew the blessing of prayer and the power of prayer.

And there prayed (κ'ακε προσηυχετο). Imperfect tense picturing Jesus as praying through the early morning hours.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,36:

Followed after him (κατεδιωξεν αυτον). Hunted him out (Moffatt). Perfective use of the preposition κατα (down to the finish). The verb διωκω is used for the hunt or chase, pursuit. Vulgate has persecutus est. The personal story of Peter comes in here. "Simon's intention at least was good; the Master seemed to be losing precious opportunities and must be brought back" (Swete). Peter and those with him kept up the search till they found him. The message that they brought would surely bring Jesus back to Peter's house.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,38:

Into the next towns (εις τας εχομενας κωμοπολεις). It was a surprising decision for Jesus to leave the eager, excited throngs in Capernaum for the country town or village cities without walls or much importance. Only instance of the word in the N.T. Late Greek word. The use of εχομενας for next is a classic use meaning clinging to, next to a thing. So in Lu 13:33; Ac 13:44; 20:15; Heb 6:9. "D" here has εγγυς (near).


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,39:

Throughout all Galilee (Εις ολην την Γαλιλαιαν). The first tour of Galilee by Jesus. We are told little about this great preaching tour.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,40:

Kneeling down to him (κα γονυπετων). Picturesque detail omitted by some MSS. Lu 5:12 has "fell on his face."


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,41:

Being moved with compassion (σπλαγχνισθεις). Only in Mark. First aorist passive participle.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,43:

Strictly charged (εμβριμησαμενος). Only in Mark. Lu 5:14 has παρηγγειλεν (commanded). Mark's word occurs also in 14:5 and in Mt 9:30 and Joh 11:38. See on Mt 9:30. It is a strong word for the snorting of a horse and expresses powerful emotion as Jesus stood here face to face with leprosy, itself a symbol of sin and all its train of evils. The command to report to the priests was in accord with the Mosaic regulations and the prohibition against talking about it was to allay excitement and to avoid needless opposition to Christ.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,44:

For a testimony unto them (εις μαρτυριον αυτοις). Without the formal testimony of the priests the people would not receive the leper as officially clean.


Evanjelium podľa Marka 1,45:

Began to publish it much (ηρξατο κηρυσσειν πολλα). Lu 5:15 puts it, "so much the more" (μαλλον). One of the best ways to spread a thing is to tell people not to tell. It was certainly so in this case. Soon Jesus had to avoid cities and betake himself to desert places to avoid the crowds and even then people kept coming to Jesus (ηρχοντο, imperfect tense). Some preachers are not so disturbed by the onrush of crowds.

Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:2 - Kniha proroka Malachiáša 3:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:2 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 11:10
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:2 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 7:27
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:3 - Kniha proroka Izaiáša 40:3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:3 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:3 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:4
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:3 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:23
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:4 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:4 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:4 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 3:23
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:5 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:5
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:5 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:7
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:6 - 2. kniha kráľov 1:8
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:6 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:4
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:6 - Kniha Levitikus 11:22
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:7 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:11
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:7 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:7 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:27
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:11
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Skutky apoštolov 1:5
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Skutky apoštolov 11:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Skutky apoštolov 19:4
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Kniha proroka Izaiáša 44:3
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Kniha proroka Joela 2:28
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Skutky apoštolov 2:4
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:8 - Skutky apoštolov 11:15
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:10 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:10 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:21
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:10 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 1:32
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Žalmy 2:7
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Kniha proroka Izaiáša 42:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 3:17
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 17:5
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Evanjelium podľa Marka 9:7
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 3:22
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 9:35
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - List Kolosanom 1:13
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:11 - 2. Petrov list 1:17
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:12 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 4:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:12 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:14 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 4:12
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:14 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:14
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:14 - Evanjelium podľa Jána 4:43
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:15 - Kniha proroka Izaiáša 56:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:16 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 4:18
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:17 - Kniha proroka Jeremiáša 16:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:17 - Kniha proroka Ezechiela 47:10
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:18 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 19:27
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:18 - Evanjelium podľa Marka 10:28
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:18 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 5:11
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:18 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 18:28
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:19 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 4:21
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:21 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 4:13
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:21 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:31
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:22 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 7:28
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:22 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:32
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:23 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:33
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:29 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 8:14
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:29 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:38
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:32 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 8:16
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:32 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:40
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:35 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:42
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:35 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 14:23
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:38 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:43
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:38 - Kniha proroka Izaiáša 61:1
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:38 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 4:18
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:40 - Evanjelium podľa Matúša 8:2
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:40 - Evanjelium podľa Lukáša 5:12
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:44 - Kniha Levitikus 13:2
Evanjelium podľa Marka 1:44 - Kniha Levitikus 14:1
Mk 1,1-8 - Mt 3, 1-12; Lk 3, 1-18; Jn 1, 19-28.

Mk 1,1 - Marek tu "evanjeliom" nemyslí svoj spis, ale posolstvo, dobrú zvesť, ktorú priniesol Ježiš Kristus a ktorej on sám je stredobodom.

Mk 1,2 - Mal 3, 1.

Mk 1,3 - Iz 40, 3.

Mk 1,8 - O Jánovom krste pozri poznámku k Mt 3, 6. Kristus bude krstiť "Duchom Svätým", čiže jeho krst nebude iba obrad, ale očistí človeka od hriechu a vleje doň novú životnú silu božského života.

Mk 1,9-11 - Mt 3, 13-17; Lk 3, 21-22; Jn 1, 32-34.

Mk 1,12-13 - Mt 4, 1-11; Lk 4, 1-13.

Mk 1,14-15 - Mt 4, 12-17; Lk 4, 14-15.

Mk 1,16-20 - Mt 4, 18-22; Lk 5, 1-11.

Mk 1,21-28 - Lk 4, 31-37.

Mk 1,23-27 - Marek nazýva zlého ducha nečistým, pretože podľa zákona posadnutý človek je nečistý. Otázkou "Čo ťa do nás...?" chce zlý duch vyjadriť, aby ho Ježiš nechal na pokoji a nerušil jeho činnosť. Zlý duch tuší, že Ježiš je osobnosť vyššej prirodzenosti. Preto ho menuje iba nepriamo mesiášskym titulom "Boží Svätý". Moc nad zlými duchmi je jeden zo znakov mesiášskeho kráľovstva.

Mk 1,29-34 - Mt 8, 14-17; Lk 4, 38-41.

Mk 1,35-39 - Lk 4, 42-44.

Mk 1,40-45 - Mt 8, 2-4; Lk 5, 12-16.

Mk 1,44 - Pozri poznámku k Mt 8, 4.